Plant Check List for Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park, Jefferson County, United States.

Edited by Tom Schweich

This list is assembled from personal collections, herbarium vouchers, and published lists. For California, much of the data is provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/consortium/). For Colorado, much of the data is provided by the Southwest Environmental Information Network, which web site is found at (http://swbiodiversity.org). See their respective websites for copyright information and recommended citation formats.

For a complete list of Locations included in this Area List, see the Locations Included section, below.

This page is highly summarized. For detail about the distribution of plants, please see: Detailed Area List for Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park, Jefferson County, United States.

Pinaceae
[ ] Pinus ponderosa Laws. Ponderosa Pine. R/E

Apiaceae
[ ] Harbouria trachypleura (A. Gray) J.M. Coult. & Rose. (Syn: Thaspium trachypleurum A. Gray ) Whiskbroom Parsley. R/E
[ ] Lomatium orientale J.M. Coult. & Rose. Northern Idaho Biscuitroot. R/E

Apocynaceae
[ ] Apocynum ×floribundum Greene. Dogbane. R/E
[ ] Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Bitter Dogbane. Pview

Asclepiadaceae
[ ] Asclepias speciosa Torr. Showy Milkweed. R/E
[ ] Asclepias viridiflora Raf. Green Comet Milkweed. R/E

Asteraceae
[ ] Achillea millefolium L. (Syn: A. lanulosa Nutt. , A. m. L. var. alpicola (Rydb.) Garrett , A. m. L. var. lanulosa (Nutt.) Piper , A. m. L. var. occidentalis DC. ) Common Yarrow. R/E
[ ] Ambrosia psilostachya DC. Western Ragweed. R/E
[ ] Antennaria rosea Greene. Rosy Pussytoes. R/E
[ ] Arnica fulgens Pursh. Foothill Arnica. R/E
[ ] Artemisia campestris L. Field Sagewort. R/E
[ ] Artemisia frigida Willd. Prairie Sagewort. R/E
[ ] Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. Silver Wormwood. R/E
[ ] Carduus nutans L. (Syn: Carduus nutans L. ssp. macrolepis (Peterman) Kazmi ) Nodding Plumeless Thistle. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. R/E
[ ] Centaurea diffusa Lam. (Syn: Acosta diffusa (Lam.) Soja' k ) White Knapweed. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. R/E
[ ] Cichorium intybus L. Common Chicory. R/E
[ ] Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Syn: Breea arvensis (L.) Lessing ) Canada Thistle. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. R/E
[ ] Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. Wavy Leaved Thistle. R/E
[ ] Dieteria bigelovii (A. Gray) D. R. Morgan & R. L. Hartman. (Syn: Machaeranthera bigelovii (A. Gray) Greene ) Bigelow's Tansy Aster. R/E
[ ] Erigeron flagellaris A. Gray. Trailing Fleabane. R/E
[ ] Erigeron tracyi Greene. (Syn: Erigeron cinereus A. Gray , Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson , Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray ) Running Fleabane. R/E
[ ] Erigeron vetensis Rydb. Early Bluetop Fleabane. R/E
[ ] Gaillardia aristata Pursh. Blanketflower. R/E
[ ] Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal. Curlycup Gumweed. R/E
[ ] Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby. Broom Snakeweed. R/E
[ ] Helianthus pauciflorus Nutt. ssp. subrhomboideus (Rydb.) O. Spring & E. Schilling. (Syn: Helianthus rigidus (Cass.) Desf. ssp. subrhomboideus (Rydb.) Heiser , Helianthus subrhomboideus Rydb. ) Stiff Sunflower. R/E
[ ] Helianthus pumilus Nutt. Little Sunflower. R/E
[ ] Heterotheca foliosa (Nutt.) Shinners. (Syn: Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners var. foliosa (Nutt.) V.L. Harms ) Hairy False Goldenaster. R/E
[ ] Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners. (Syn: H. v. (Pursh) Shinners var. nana (A. Gray) Semple , H. v. (Pursh) Shinners var. villosa ) Hairy False Goldenaster. All infra-specific taxa treated here as synonyms. R/E
[ ] Liatris punctata Hook. Dotted Blazing Star. R/E
[ ] Packera plattensis (Nuttall) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve. (Syn: Senecio plattensis (Packera) Nutt. ) Prairie Groundsel. R/E
[ ] Pseudognaphalium macounii (Greene) Kartesz. Macoun’s Rabbit-Tobacco. R/E
[ ] Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. (Syn: Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt. ) Upright Prairie Coneflower. R/E
[ ] Senecio integerrimus Nutt. Columbia Ragwort. R/E
[ ] Senecio spartioides Torr. & A. Gray. (Syn: Senecio multicapitatus Greenm. ex Rydb. ) Broomlike Ragwort. R/E
[ ] Solidago missouriensis Nutt. Missouri Goldenrod. R/E
[ ] Solidago nana Nutt. Baby Goldenrod. R/E
[ ] Solidago rigida L. var. humilis Porter. Stiff Goldenrod. R/E
[ ] Solidago speciosa Nutt. var. pallida Porter. Pale Showy Goldenrod. R/E
[ ] Symphyotrichum ericoides (Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom. (Syn: Virgulus ericoides (Linnaeus) Reveal & Keener ) White Heath Aster. R/E
[ ] Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve. Smooth Blue Aster. R/E
[ ] Symphyotrichum porteri (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom. (Syn: Aster porteri A. Gray ) Smooth White Aster. R/E
[ ] Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. (Syn: T. laevigatum (Willd.) DC. ) Common Dandelion. R/E
[ ] Townsendia hookeri Beaman. Hooker's Townsend Daisy. R/E
[ ] Tragopogon dubius Scop. (Syn: Tragopogon dubius Scop. ssp. major (Jacq.) Vollman ) Yellow Salsify. R/E

Boraginaceae
[ ] Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) Greene var. cupulata (A. Gray) Higgins. (Syn: Lappula redowskii (Hornem.) Greene var. cupulata (A. Gray) M. E. Jones ) Crowned Stickseed. R/E
[ ] Lithospermum incisum Lehm. Narrowleaf Stoneseed. R/E
[ ] Lithospermum multiflorum Torrey ex A. Gray. Many Flowered Stoneseed. R/E
[ ] Lithospermum occidentale (Mack.) Weakley, Witsell & D. Estes. (Syn: Onosmodium bejariense DC. ex A. DC. var. occidentale (Mack.) B. L. Turner ) Western Gromwell nee Marbleseed. R/E
[ ] Mertensia lanceolata (Pursh) DC. Prairie Bluebells. R/E
[ ] Plagiobothrys scouleri (Hook. & Arn.) I.M. Johnst. var. hispidulus (Greene) Dorn. (Syn: Plagiobothrys scouleri (Hook. & Arn.) I.M. Johnst. var. penicillata (Greene) Löve ) Scouler's popcornflower. R/E

Brassicaceae
[ ] Alyssum simplex Rudolphi. (Syn: Alyssum minus Rothm. , Alyssum parviflorum Fisch. ex M.Bieb. ) European Madwort. R/E
[ ] Arabis pycnocarpa M. Hopkins var. pycnocarpa. (Syn: Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. , Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. var. pycnocarpa (M. Hopkins) Rollins ) Cream Flower Rockcress. R/E
[ ] Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Garden Yellowrocket. R/E
[ ] Boechera fendleri (S.Watson) W.A.Weber. (Syn: Arabis fendleri (S. Watson) Greene ) Fendler's rockcress. R/E
[ ] Draba reptans (Lam.) Fernald. Carolina Whitlow Grass. R/E
[ ] Erysimum capitatum (Hook.) Greene. Sanddune Wallflower. R/E
[ ] Lepidium campestre (L.) W. T. Aiton. Field Pepperweed. R/E
[ ] Noccaea fendleri (A. Gray) Holub ssp. glauca (A. Nelson) Al-Shehbaz & M. Koch. (Syn: Noccaea montana (L.) F. K. Meyer , Thlaspi montanum L. var. montanum ) R/E
[ ] Physaria montana (A. Gray) Greene. (Syn: Lesquerella montana (A. Gray) S. Watson ) Mountain Bladderpod. R/E

Cactaceae
[ ] Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelm. (Syn: Echinocereus chloranthus (Engelm.) J.N.Haage , Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelm. var. chloranthus (Engelm.) Backeb. ) Nylon Hedgehog Cactus. R/E
[ ] Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. Twistspine Pricklypear. R/E
[ ] Pediocactus simpsonii (Engelm.) Britton & Rose. (Syn: Echinocactus simpsonii Engelm. , Pediocactus simpsonii (Engelm.) Britton & Rose var. minor (Engelm.) Cockerell ) Mountain Ball Cactus. R/E

Campanulaceae
[ ] Campanula rotundiflora L. Harebell. R/E

Caprifoliaceae
[ ] Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook. Western Snowberry. R/E

Caryophyllaceae
[ ] Cerastium arvense L. ssp. strictum Gaudin. (Syn: Cerastium strictum L ) Field Chickweed. R/E
[ ] Dianthus armeria L. Deptford Pink. R/E
[ ] Eremogone fendleri (A. Gray) Ikonnikov. (Syn: Arenaria fendleri A. Gray ) Fendler's Sandwort. R/E
[ ] Paronychia jamesii Torr. & A. Gray. James' Nailwort. R/E
[ ] Saponaria officinalis L. Bouncingbet. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. R/E
[ ] Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke. Maidens Tears. R/E

Convolvulaceae
[ ] Convolvulus arvensis L. Field Bindweed. Weed: CO DofA, List: C. R/E

Crassulaceae
[ ] Crassula aquatica (L.) Schoenl. Water Pygmy Weed. R/E
[ ] Sedum lanceolatum Torr. (Syn: Amerosedum lanceolatum (Torr.) A. Löve & D. Löve ) Spearleaf Stonecrop. R/E

Fabaceae
[ ] Amorpha fruticosa L. False Indigo. R/E
[ ] Amorpha nana Nutt. Dwarf False Indigo. R/E
[ ] Astragalus agrestis Douglas ex G. Don. Purple Milkvetch. R/E
[ ] Astragalus eucosmus B. L. Rob. Elegant Milkvetch. R/E
[ ] Dalea purpurea Vent. Purple Prairie Clover. R/E
[ ] Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh. American Licorice. R/E
[ ] Lupinus caudatus Kellogg var. argophyllus (A. Gray) S.L. Welsh. (=Lupinus caudatus Kellogg ssp. argophyllus (A.Gray) E.Phillips) Kellogg's Spurred Lupine. R/E
[ ] Medicago sativa L. Alfalfa. R/E
[ ] Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Yellow Sweet Clover. R/E
[ ] Oxytropis lambertii Pursh. Purple Locoweed. R/E
[ ] Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydb. (=Pediomelum tenuiflorum (Pursh) A. N. Egan) Slimflower Scurfpea. R/E
[ ] Thermopsis rhombifolia (Nutt. ex Pursh) Nutt. ex Richardson var. divaricarpa (A. Nelson) Isely. (=Thermopsis divaricarpa A. Nelson) Prairie Thermopsis. R/E
[ ] Trifolium hybridum L. Alsike Clover. R/E
[ ] Trifolium pratense L. Red Clover. R/E

Gentianaceae
[ ] Frasera speciosa Griseb. (Syn: Swertia radiata (Kellogg) Kuntze ) Elkweed. R/E
[ ] Gentiana affinis Griseb. (Syn: Pneumonanthe oregana (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Greene ) Pleated or Rocky Mountain Gentian.. R/E

Geraniaceae
[ ] Geranium caespitosum James. Pineywoods Geranium. R/E

Grossulariaceae
[ ] Ribes aureum Pursh. Golden Currant. R/E
[ ] Ribes cereum Douglas. Wax Currant. R/E

Hypericaceae
[ ] Hypericum perforatum L. Common St. John's Wort. Weed: CO DofA, List: C. R/E

Lamiaceae
[ ] Lycopus americanus W. P. C. Barton. American Bugleweed. R/E
[ ] Mentha arvensis L. Wild Mint. R/E
[ ] Monarda fistulosa L. Wild Bergamot. R/E
[ ] Prunella vulgaris L. Common Selfheal. R/E
[ ] Salvia reflexa Hornemann. (Syn: S. lanceolata Rydb. [unpub.] , S. lanceolata Willd. [illeg.] , S. trichostemmoides Pursh ) Lanceleaf Sage. R/E

Montiaceae
[ ] Claytonia rosea Rydb. Rocky Mountain Springbeauty. R/E
[ ] Phemeranthus parviflorus (Nutt.) Kiger. Sunbright. R/E

Myrsinaceae
[ ] Lysimachia ciliata L. Fringed Loosestrife. R/E

Onagraceae
[ ] Epilobium brachycarpum C. Presl. Autumn Willow Herb. R/E
[ ] Epilobium ciliatum Raf. Fringed Willowherb. R/E
[ ] Oenothera suffrutescens (Ser.) W. L. Wagner & Hoch. (Syn: Gaura coccinea Pursh , Gaura glabra Lehm. ) Linda Tarde. R/E
[ ] Oenothera villosa Thunb. Hairy Evening Primrose. R/E

Orobanchaceae
[ ] Castilleja integra A. Gray. Wholeleaf Indian Paintbrush. R/E
[ ] Castilleja sessiliflora Pursh. Downy Paintedcup. R/E
[ ] Orobanche uniflora L. (Syn: Aphyllon uniflorum (L.) Torr. & A. Gray , Orobanche uniflora L. var. uniflora ) Naked Broomrape. R/E

Oxalidaceae
[ ] Oxalis stricta L. Common Yellow Oxalis. R/E

Phrymaceae
[ ] Erythranthe floribunda (Douglas ex Lindl.) G. L. Nesom. (Syn: Mimulus floribundus Lindl. ) Many Flowered Monkey Flower. R/E

Plantaginaceae
[ ] Gratiola neglecta Torr. Clammy Hedge Hyssop. R/E
[ ] Penstemon secundiflorus Benth. Sidebells Penstemon. R/E
[ ] Penstemon virens Pennell ex Rydb. Front Range Beardtongue. R/E
[ ] Plantago lanceolata L. Narrowleaf Plantain. R/E
[ ] Plantago major L. Common Plantain. R/E
[ ] Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. Water Speedwell. R/E
[ ] Veronica peregrina L. ssp. xalapensis (Kunth) Pennell. (Syn: Veronica peregrina L. var. xalapensis (Kunth) H.St.John ) Neckweed. R/E

Polemoniaceae
[ ] Ipomopsis spicata (Nutt.) V.E. Grant. Spiked Ipomopsis. R/E

Polygonaceae
[ ] Eriogonum alatum Torr. (Syn: Pterogonum alatum (Torr.) Gross ) Winged Buckwheat. R/E
[ ] Eriogonum arcuatum Greene. (Syn: Eriogonum jamesii Benth , Eriogonum jamesii Benth var. flavescens S. Watson ) Baker's Buckwheat. R/E
[ ] Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. var. umbellatum. Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat. R/E
[ ] Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) M. Gómez. (Syn: Polygonum pensylvanicum L. ) Pennsylvania smartweed. R/E
[ ] Polygonum douglasii Greene. (Syn: Polygonum majus (Meisner) Piper ) Douglas Knotweed. R/E
[ ] Rumex acetosella L. (Syn: Acetosella vulgaris (K. Koch) Fourr. , R. angiocarpus Murb. ) Sorrel. R/E

Ranunculaceae
[ ] Anemone patens L. var. multifida Pritzel. (Syn: Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill. var. multifida (Pritz.) Zämels ) Eastern Pasqueflower. R/E
[ ] Clematis hirsutissima Pursh. (Syn: Coriflora hirsutissima (Pursh) W. A. Weber ) Hairy Clematis. R/E
[ ] Delphinium nuttallianum Pritz. Twolobe Larkspur. R/E
[ ] Ranunculus pensylvanicus L. f. Pennsylvania Buttercup. R/E

Rhamnaceae
[ ] Ceanothus fendleri A. Gray. Fendler's Ceanothus. R/E

Rosaceae
[ ] Cercocarpus montanus Raf. Alder-Leaf Mountain Mahogany. R/E
[ ] Crataegus succulenta Schrad. ex Link. (Syn: Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe , Crataegus erythropoda Ashe , Crataegus macrantha Britton var. occidentalis (Britton) Eggl. ) Fleshy Hawthorn. R/E
[ ] Potentilla effusa Douglas ex Lehm. Wooly Cinquefoil. R/E
[ ] Potentilla hippiana Lehm. var. effusa (Douglas ex Lehm.) Dorn. Wooly Cinquefoil. R/E
[ ] Potentilla recta L. Sulphur Cinquefoil. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. R/E
[ ] Potentilla rivalis Nutt. Brook Cinquefoil. R/E
[ ] Potentilla supina L. ssp. paradoxa (Nuttall) Sojak. Bushy Cinquefoil. R/E
[ ] Prunus americana Marshall. American Plum. R/E
[ ] Prunus virginiana L. Chokecherry. R/E
[ ] Rosa arkansana Porter. Prairie Rose. R/E

Rubiaceae
[ ] Galium aparine L. (Syn: Galium aparine L. var. echinospermum (Wallr.) Farw. , Galium spurium L. ) Sticky Willy, Cleavers. R/E
[ ] Galium boreale S. Watson. (Syn: Galium septentrionale Roem. & Schult. ) Bedstraw. R/E

Santalaceae
[ ] Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. ssp. pallida (A. DC.) Piehl. (Syn: Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. var. pallida (A. DC.) M. E. Jones ) Pale Bastard Toadflax. R/E

Scrophulariaceae
[ ] Limosella aquatica L. Water Mudwort. R/E
[ ] Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh. Lanceleaf Figwort. R/E

Verbenaceae
[ ] Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. Large Bract Vervain. R/E

Violaceae
[ ] Viola nuttallii Pursh. Nuttall's Violet. R/E

Alismataceae
[ ] Alisma triviale Pursh. Northern Water Plantain. R/E

Alliaceae
[ ] Allium cernuum Roth. Nodding Onion. R/E
[ ] Allium geyeri S. Watson. Geyer's Onion. R/E
[ ] Allium textile A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr. Textile Onion. Pview R/E

Cyperaceae
[ ] Carex inops L.H. Bailey ssp. heliophila (Mack.) Crins. (Syn: C. pensylvanica Lam. ssp. heliophila (Mack.) W. A. Weber ) Sun Sedge. R/E
[ ] Carex nebrascensis Dewey. Nebraska Sedge. R/E
[ ] Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult. Common Spikerush. R/E
[ ] Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C.C.Gmel.) Palla. (Syn: Scirpus lacustris L. var. validus (Vahl) Kük. , Scirpus validus Vahl ) Softstem Bulrush. R/E
[ ] Scirpus pallidus (Britt.) Fern. Cloaked Bulrush. R/E

Iridaceae
[ ] Iris missouriensis Nutt. Western Blue Flag. R/E
[ ] Sisyrinchium montanum Greene. Strict Blue-Eyed Grass. R/E

Juncaceae
[ ] Juncus arcticus (Willd.)Trautv. var. balticus (Willdenow) Trautvetter. (Syn: Juncus arcticus (Willd.)Trautv. ssp. ater (Rydb.) Hultén , Juncus ater Rydb. , Juncus balticus Willd. , Juncus balticus Willd. ssp. ater (Rydb.) Snogerup , J. balticus Willd. var. montanus Engelm. ) Arctic Rush. R/E
[ ] Juncus bufonius L. Toad Rush. R/E
[ ] Juncus interior Wiegand. Inland Rush. R/E

Liliaceae
[ ] Calochortus gunnisonii S. Watson. Gunnison's Mariposa Lily. R/E

Poaceae
[ ] Aegilops cylindrica Host. (Syn: Cylindropyrum cylindricum (Host) Á.Löve ) Jointed Goat Grass. Weed: CO DofA, List: B. R/E
[ ] Agrostis gigantea Roth. (Syn: Agrostis alba L. ) Redtop. R/E
[ ] Agrostis stolonifera L. Creeping Bentgrass. R/E
[ ] Alopecurus carolinianus Walter. Carolina Foxtail. R/E
[ ] Andropogon gerardii Vitman. Big Bluestem. R/E
[ ] Aristida purpurea Nutt. Purple Threeawn. R/E
[ ] Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. Sideoats Grama. R/E
[ ] Briza L. Quaking Grass. R/E
[ ] Bromus inermis Leyss. (Syn: B. inermis Leyss. ssp. inermis ) Smooth Brome. R/E
[ ] Bromus japonicus Thunb. Japanese Cheat Grass. R/E
[ ] Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. (Syn: Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) J.T. Columbus ) Buffalo Grass. R/E
[ ] Dactylis glomerata L. Orchard Grass. R/E
[ ] Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald var. microstachya Wiegand. Rough Barnyardgrass. R/E
[ ] Elymus canadensis L. Canadian Wildrye. R/E
[ ] Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey. (Syn: Elymus longifolius (J. G. Sm.) Gould , Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J. G. Sm. ) Squirreltail Grass. R/E
[ ] Hesperostipa comata (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth. (Syn: Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr. ) Needle and Thread. R/E
[ ] Hesperostipa spartea (Trin.) Barkworth. Porcupine Grass. R/E
[ ] Hordeum brachyantherum Nevski. Meadow Barley. R/E
[ ] Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult. Prairie Junegrass. R/E
[ ] Muhlenbergia montana (Nutt.) Hitchc. Mountain Muhly. R/E
[ ] Muhlenbergia wrightii Vasey ex J.M. Coult. Spike muhly. R/E
[ ] Nassella viridula (Trin.) Barkworth. (Syn: Stipa viridula Trin. ) Green Needlegrass. R/E
[ ] Phleum pratense L. Timothy. R/E
[ ] Poa compressa L. Canada Bluegrass. R/E
[ ] Poa pratensis L. (Syn: P. agassizensis B. Boivin & D. Löve ) Kentucky Bluegrass. R/E
[ ] Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash. Little Bluestem. R/E
[ ] Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. Yellow Indian Grass. R/E
[ ] Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link. Prairie Cordgrass. R/E
[ ] Sporobolus heterolepis (A. Gray) A. Gray. Prairie Drop-seed. R/E
[ ] Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey. (Syn: Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis ) Intermediate Wheatgrass. R/E

Total number of taxa: 193
Native Taxa:
(serif, italic, bold)
155
Exotic Taxa:
(sans-serif, italic)
36
Nativity Undetermined:
(default font, italic)
2
Listed Weeds:
Indentified as Weed
8

Locations Included in This Area

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Date and time this article was prepared: 8/11/2018 2:33:05 PM