Eastern Mojave Vegetation Glossary  
 

Tom Schweich  

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Area Of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC). An area within public lands where special management attention is required to protect and prevent irreparable damage to important historic, cultural or scenic values, fish and wildlife resources, or other natural systems or processes, or to protect life and safety from natural hazards. (FLPMA, Section 103(a)).

Other articles: Wild Horse Canyon Road 36000 Eastern Mojave Geology 220000  

adamellite Synomymous with and perhaps a preferable name for quartz monzonite.
  alluvial. Referring to water carried material.

Other articles: Glossary bajada inselberg  

alluvial fan. A gently sloping (ten degrees or less) fan shaped deposit of sediments formed where an intermittent stream undergoes an abrupt reduction in slope. Coarsest materials are found near the apex of the fan (nearest the mountain or hill front) whereas the finest materials occur farthest from the mountain front.

 

alluvium. Material, including sand, clay, gravel, and mud, deposited in river beds, lakes, alluvial fans, valleys, and elsewhere by modern streams.

 

amphibolite. A crystalloblastic rock consisting mainly of amphibole and plagioclase with little or no quartz. As the content of quartz increases, the rock grades into hornblende-plagioclase gneiss.

 

amphibolite facies. The set of metamorphic mineral assemblages in which basic rocks are represented by hornblende + plagioclase, the latter being oligoclase-andesine or a more calcic variety, The facies is typical of regional metamorphism under moderate to high pressures and temperatures.

Other articles: Blackbrush 406500 Glossary entomophilous  

anemophilous Pollinated by wind. See also: entomophilous.

 

Animal Unit Month (AUM). A unit of measure of the impact of a grazing animals on range land. An AUM is equivalent to the amount of forage required by a 1,000 pound cow for 1 month (BLM, 1980, p. 68). A calf might give an AUM value, sheep another, etc..

Literature Cited:
- Biness, Naomi L., and Mark D. Zoback, 2006.

Locations: San Andreas Fault Zone.  

anisotropy the condition of having different properties in different directions, as in geologic strata that transmit sound waves with different velocities in the vertical or horizontal directions.

Boness and Zoback (2006) present shear velocity anisotropy data from local earthquake sources as an independent tool to analyze the state of stress close to active faults on a regional scale.

 

anthropology. the science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development, racial characteristics and social customs and beliefs of mankind.

Other articles: Glossary syncline  

anticline. A configuration of folded, stratified rocks in which the rocks dip or incline in two directions away from the crest, like the two halves of a pitched roof. The reverse of a "syncline".

Literature Cited:
- Schubert, Brian A., Tim K. Lowenstein, Michael N. Timofeeff and Matthew A. Parker, 2009.

Other articles: Badwater Road near Badwater Basin Glossary procaryote

Locations: Badwater Basin.  

archaea. Any of a group of microorganisms that resemble bacteria but are different from them in certain aspects of their chemical structure, such as the composition of their cell walls. Archaea usually live in extreme, often very hot or salty environments, such as hot mineral springs or deep-sea hydrothermal vents, but some are also found in animal digestive systems. The archaea are considered a separate kingdom in some classifications, but a division of the prokaryotes (Monera) in others. Some scientists believe that archaea were the earliest forms of cellular life. Also called archaebacterium.

 

arid. Zero to ten inches precipitation per year. Potential for evaporation exceeds annual precipitation.

 

ash. 1. Inorganic residue remaining after ignition of combustible substances, quantitatively determined by definite prescribed methods. 2. Volcanic dust and particles less than 4 mm. in diameter.

 

ash, volcanic. Uncemented pyroclastic material consisting of fragments mostly under 4 mm. in diameter. Without a qualifying adjective, the term should be applied only to essential ejecta.

 

ash fall. 1. A rain of airborne volcanic ash falling from an eruption cloud. Characteristic of vulcanian eruptions. 2. A deposit of volcanic ash resulting from such a fall and lying on the ground surface. (AGI)

 

ash flow. 1. An avalanche of volcanic ash, generally a highly heated mixture of volcanic gases and ash, traveling down the flanks of a volcano or along the surface of the ground and produced by the explosive disintegration of viscous lava in a volcanic crater or by the explosive emission of gas charged ash from a fissure or group of fissures. Ash flows of the type described at Mount Pelee are considered to represent the feeblest type of the nuee ardente. The solid materials contained in a typical ash flow are generally unsorted and ordinarily include volcanic dust, pumice, scoria, and blocks in addition to ash. 2. A deposit of volcanic ash and other debris resulting from such a flow and lying on the ground surface. Syn: ignimbrite. (AGI)

 

ash flow tuff. A tuff resulting from an ash flow.

Other articles: Glossary welded_tuff  

Aso lava. A type of indurated pyroclastic deposit produced during the explosive eruptions that formed the Aso Caldera of Kyushu, Japan. Chiefly a lavalike tuff consisting of lenses or spindles of black and gray obsidian lying in a tuffaceous matrix that displays a streaky, varicolored banding or eutaxitic structure. Possibly erupted as extremely hot, gas rich dust and ash carrying large clots of molten, vesiculated volcanic glass. Similar to deposits variously described as welded tuff, welded pumice, ignimbrite, and tuff-lava. (AGI)

Other articles: Eastern Mojave Geology 149000  

aulacogen. A long lived deeply subsiding trough, at times fault bounded, that extends at high angles from a geosyncline far into an adjacent foreland platform.

  The Neoproterozoic Pahrump Group is thought to have been deposited in an east-west aulacogen.

Other articles: Rubey Drive at turn Field Notes Coll. No. 1110, 26 May 2015 Coll. No. 1113, 26 May 2015
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1110, Secale cereale, auricles ±1 mm.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1113, Bromus inermis, auricles absent, or very much reduced.  

auricle. A structure resembling an ear or an earlobe. In botany, and particularly grasses thereof, an auricle in a small lobe at the juncture of the leaf sheath and leaf blade.

Other articles: Glossary synecology Vegetation of the Mid Hills 62800  

autecology n. Study of the requirements, tolerances, and responses of a single organism (Oosting 1956:12). The ecology of a species or of individual organisms in relation to the environment (Webster).

 

avalanche, volcanic. Avalanche usually refers to a large mass of ice and snow, sometimes accompanied by other material, moving rapidly down a mountain slope. A volcanic avalanche is a general term relating to movement of large masses of volcanic material, ususally tephra, moving rapidly down a mountain slope without regard for temperature and gas content.

 

axiolite, axiolitic. No definition in AGI, 1962. Defined in Ross and Smith, 1961.

Other articles: Glossary alluvial_fan  

bajada. 1. The slope or continuous apron comprised of merged alluvial fans. 2. A series of merged alluvial fans along the base of a mountain range.

Literature Cited:
- American Geological Institute, 1960.

Other articles: Glossary roof_pendant  

batholith 1. Originally defined in 1895 as a stock-shaped or shieldshaped mass of igneous rock intruded as the fusion of older formations. On removal of its rock cover and on continued denudation, this mass holds its diameter or grows broader to unknown depths. 2. A body of intrusive rock, with the general characteristics of stocks, but of much larger size than is generally attributed to stocks or bosses.

 

bench. A strip of relatively level earth or rock, raised and narrow. A small terrace or comparatively level platform breaking the continuity of a declivity (AGI).

 

block. An angular fragment over 256 mm. in diameter showing little or no modification in form due to transportation; similar in size to a boulder. (AGI, 1962).

 

blueschist. At high pressure and low temperature, albite feldspar breaks down and forms the pyroxene jadeite and amphiboles like glaucophane and aegerine. The amphiboles are bluish, hence the term "blueschist."

High pressures (5 to over 8 kb) and low to moderate temperatures of 250° to 600° C (480° to 1,100° F) form blueschist facies. Blueschist facies is typical of subduction-zone metamorphism as tectonic plates fold over one another.

 

bolson. In arid regions, a basin filled with alluvium and intermittent lakes and having no surface water outlet.

Other articles: Wild Horse Canyon Road 36000 56000 Eastern Mojave Geology 220000 Columbia Mine  

breccia Rock composed in sharp-angled fragements cemented in a fine matrix.
 

Bryozoa. Phylum of tiny colonial animals equipped with a circle or loop or tentacles surrounding the mouth that build calcareous structures of many kinds, mostly marine. Ordovician to Recent. The phylum of invertebrate animals which are popularly called "moss animals". (Called Polyzoa by some zoologists.)

Other articles: Field Notes Coll. No. 470 26-Jun-07  

callus. The hardened, sometimes sharp base of the floret of certain grasses.

 

capture. See stream capture.

 

carbonate bank. A submarine plateau composed of limestone, much like the present-day Bahamas.

 

carbonate mineral. Mineral formed by the combination of the complex ion (CO3)2- with a positive ion. Common example: CaCO3, calcium carbonate, the primary constituent of limestone.

Other articles: Frasera albomarginata 100200  

caudex. The woody base of an othersize herbaceous perennial (Munz, 1965). 1. The thickened base of the stem of certain perennials (Webster).
 

California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA). The 25 million acre CDCA contains over 12 million acres of public lands administered by the BLM. The boundaries are formed by the Nevada border and Colorado River on the east. The United States / Mexico boundary forms the southern boundary. Western boundaries are mostly desert areas on the east sides of the Peninsular Ranges, the Transverse Ranges, the Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Nevada.

Other articles: Kelbaker Road 16000  

cinder cone. A type of volcano which is built exclusively or in large part of pyroclastic ejecta dominated by cinders (particles 0.01 to 1 inch in diameter). Seldom exceeds 1,500 feet in height. Slopes up to 30 or 40 degrees.

 

cismontane. Situated on this side of the mountains.

Cismontane California is west of the Cascades--Sierra and Transverse--Peninsular crests.

Other articles: Eastern Mojave Climate Climate  

climate 1. Meterological conditions, including temperature, precipitation, and wind, that prevail in a region. 2. A region manifesting particular meterological conditions. 3. A prevailing condition or atmosphere. See also: weather
 

connate. Anatomy. firmly united; fused. Botany congenitally joined, as leaves and "connate petals."

  coprolite. Fossil animal excrement. Fossil animal scats.

Other articles: Eastern Mojave Geology 173000
Full Size ImageSolitary horn coral found in Bonanza King Canyon.  

coral. Any of the numerous chiefly colonial marine coelenterates of the class Anthozoa, marked by calcareous skeletons massed in a variety of shapes and often forming reefs or islands.
  cordillera. A comprehensive term for an entensive series or broad assemblage of more or less parallel ranges, systems, and chains of maintains (together with their associated valleys, basins, plains plateaus, rivers, and lakes), the component parts having various trends, but the mass itself having one general direction; esp., the main mountain axis of a continent, as the great mountain region of western North America from the eastern face of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, or the parallel chains of the Andes in South America; a mountain province.

 

craton. A relatively immobile part of the earth, generally of large size.

Other articles: Eastern Mojave Geology 172300  

crinoid. an echinoderm of the class Crinoidea, having a cup-shaped body to which are attached branched, radiating arms, comprising the sea lilies, feather stars, and various fossil forms.

Literature Cited:
- Welsh, Stanley L., et al., 1987.

Other articles: Field Notes 200806060537020
Full Size ImageExample of Crisped Leaf Margin  

crisped refers to the margin or rdge of a leaf. Curled or wavy (Welsh, Stanley L., et al. 1987).

 

crystalline. The orderly arrangement of atoms in a crystal. Rock which is made up of crystals. Examples: igneous and metamorphic rocks.

 

crystallization. The process of forming crystals by cooling a molten substance.

Other articles: Field Notes 200806060542
Full Size ImageCollection No. 542, Astragalus kentrophyta, on Wimmer Flat, San Rafael Swell, Utah.  

decurrent
  • Extending down the stem below the insertion, as with leaves or stipules.
  • Having a wing-like or ridge-like extension beyond the actual or apparent point of attachment. Said especially of a leaf base that seems to continue down its stem.

Other articles: Field Notes 19-Apr-08 Eastern Mojave Geology 380000
Full Size ImageDesert pavement  

desert pavement. A residual deposit produced by continued removal of clay and dust by wind which leaves a surface covered with close packed pebbles. 2) Such as desert pavement. Desert crust. When loose material containing pebbles or larger stones is exposed to wind action the finer dust and sand are blown away and the pebbles gradually accumulate on the surface, forming a sort of mosaic which protects the finer material underneath from attack. This is the desert pavement. Synonym: pebble mosaic (AGI). See discussion in Chapter XI -- Geomorphology.

 

diamictite. A sedimentary rock consisting of poorly sorted, noncalcareous, terrigenous sedimentary rock (e.g., pebbly mudstone) containing a wide range of particle sizes. It has been suggested that the diamictites of the Pahrump Group are suggestive of glacier ice-rafted material.

Other articles: Field Notes Coll. No. 596, 16 Jun 2010. Glossary monoecious  

dioecious. Male and female (or staminate and pistillate) plants separate. Said of a taxon in which individual plants produce either kind of unisexual fertile reproductive structures, but not both. See also: monoecious. Examples: Salix laevigata, Carex douglasii is said to be generally dioecious.

Literature Cited:
- Holmgren, Arthur H., Leila M. Schultz, and Timothy K. Lowrey, 1976.

Other articles: Field Notes Coll. No. 623.1, 29 Jun 2010.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 623.1  

dolabriform. Having the shape of the head of an ax or cleaver

 

dune. A low hill, or bank, of drifted sand (AGI).

Literature Cited:
- Best. Myron G., 1982.
- Coleman, R. G., D. E. Lee, L. B. Beatty, and W. W. Brannock., 1965.  

eclogites (Coleman and others, 1965) are essentially bimineralic rocks comprised of almandine-pyrope garnet and jadeite-diopside pyroxene but with a bulk chemical composition essentially the same as that of basalt. Their relatively high density (3.4 to 3.5 g/cm3) suggests formation under high pressure and probably dry conditions (Best, 1982).

 

eclogite. A granular rock composed essentially of garnet (almandine-pyrope) and sodic pyroxene (omphacite). Rutile, kyanite, and quartz are typically present. (AGI, 1984)

Literature Cited:
- Bjørnerud, M. G., and H Austrheim., 2004.

Other articles: Eastern Mojave Geology 140200
Full Size ImageEclogite P-T Pathways  

eclogite facies. The set of metamorphic mineral assemblages (facies) in which basic rocks are represented by omphacitic pyroxene and almandine-pyrope garnet. Phase-equilibrium work has shown that these high-density mineral associations indicate a high pressure of crystallization.

 

edaphic adj. Of or relating to soil, esp. as it affects living organisms (Webster). Pertaining to, or influenced by, soil conditions (Munz 1965).

 

endemic adj. 1. Prevalent in or peculiar to a particular locality or people. 2. Ecol. Native or limited to a certain region (Webster).

Other articles: Blackbrush 406530  

entemophily. n. The state of relying upon insects for pollination.

Other articles: Glossary anemophilous  

entomophilous adj. Pollinated by insects.

 

ephemeral pool. A pool of water which contains water only during the wet seasons. Drys up completely at some time during the seasons.

 

ethnography. a branch of anthropology dealing with the scientific description of individual cultures.

 

eucaryote. An organism with cells characteristic of all life forms except primitive microorganisms such as bacteria; i.e. an organism with `good' or membrane-bound nuclei in its cells.

Other articles: Glossary welded_tuff  

eutaxite, eutaxitic. Applied to a structure of certain volcanic rocks with a streaked or blotched appearance due to the alternation of bands or elongated lenses of different color, composition or texture; the bands, etc., having been originally ejected as individual portions of magma which were drawn out together in a viscous state and formed a heterogeneous mass by welding. The term is most appropriately used in describing the structure of a majority of welded tuffs. (AGI)

 

fan. An accumulation of debris brought down by a stream descending through a steep ravine and debouching in the plain beneath, where the detrital material spreads out in the shape of a fan, forming a section of a vary low cone (AGI).

 

fastigiate.

  1. (botany) Erect and parallel

    The branches of this species are fastigiate.

  2. (botany, horticulture) Having closely-bunched erect parallel branches

    This is a fastigiate variety.

Ericameria nauseosa (Pallas ex Pursh) G. L. Nesom & G. I. Baird is described as being “fastigiately branched.”

 

fault. A surface of rock rupture along which there has been differential movement. A fracture in rock in which the two blocks on either side have moved in respect to each other.

 

fault block mountains. A mountain bounded by one or more faults. When two faults bound a mountain they may be responsible for the movements which have uplifted the block which was eroded to form a mountain.

 

floccose. Covered with or consisting of woolly tufts.

 

fold. A bend, flexure, or wrinkle in rock produced when the rock was in a plastic state.

 

fossil. any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age, as a skeleton, footprint, etc.

Other articles: Glossary maquis  

garrigue

Overgrazing and exploitation of the maquis shrub community reduces it to an open vegetation of low, small shrubs (eg species of Satureja, Euphorbia and Thymus and including most of those of the maquis), many bulbs and annual species. This community, garrigue, is a mass of flowers in the spring, but they soon go over to become parched and dusty, with the annuals and above-ground parts of the bulbous plants dead and crisp.
--Joan Head, Editor, The Lavender Bag

Other articles: Frasera albomarginata 100600  

glabrous. Without hairs; incorrectly used in the sense of smooth, the antonym of rough (Munz, 1965). Having no hairs, or pubescence: smooth (Webster).

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Baldwin, Bruce G., Douglas H. Goldman, David J. Keil, Robert Patterson, and Thomas J. Rosatti, 2012.
- Welsh, Stanley L., N. Duane Atwood, Sherel Goodrich, and Larry C. Higgins, 1993.

Other articles: Field Notes Coll. No. 1434, 15 Jun 2016  

glochidiate. applied to hairs, the divisions of which are barbed like a fish- hook. In Ackerfield (2015), applied to the prickles on nutlets of the Boraginaceae, noting the presence of “glochidiate prickles.” The Jepson Manual (Baldwin, et al., 2012) would say “short-barbed-prickly”, whereas Welsh, et al., 1993, simply describes the nutlets as being “glochidiate.”
Full Size Image
Glochidiate prickles on the nutlets of Coll. No. 1434, Cynoglossum officinale

Other articles: Black Canyon Road in Round Valley New York Mountain Road. 23000 Wild Horse Canyon Road 36000 Eastern Mojave Geology 220000 Columbia Mine  

gneiss A banded or foliated metamorphic rock, usually of the same composition of granite, with the minerals arranged in layers.
 

granite. A coarse-grained igneous rock dominated bt light-colored minerals with minor amounts of dark-colored minerals. Quartz and feldspar dominate. Makes up about 95% of all intrusive igneous rocks found on the continents.

 

granulite. 1. A metamorphic rock consisting of even-sized, interlocking mineral grains. 2. A coarse granular metamorphic rock of the granulite facies.

 

granulite facies. The metamorphic facies in which basic rocks are represented by diopside + hypersthene + plagioclase. It is typical of deep-seated regional dynamothermal metamorphism, at temperatures in excess of 650°C.

 

greenschist. A schistose metamorphic rock whose green color is due to the presence of chlorite, epidote, or actinolite.

 

greenschist facies. The metamorphic facies in which basic rocks are represented by albite + epidote + chlorite + actinolite. It includes the common products of low-grade regional metamorphism, and is believed to correspond to temperatures in the range 300°-500°C.

Other articles: Field Notes Coll. No. 472, 26 Jun 2007  

gynecandrous. Having staminate and pistillate flowers in the same spike or spikelet, the latter above the former.

Other articles: Frasera albomarginata 100200  

herb. A plant without persistent woody stem, at least above ground (Munz, 1965). 1. A plant with a fleshy stem as distinguished from the woody tissue of shrubs and trees and that generally dies back at the end of each growing season (Webster).
 

hornfels A fine-grained rock composed of a mosaic of equidimensional grains without preferred orientation and typically formed by contact metamorphism. Porphyroblasts or relict phemochrists may be present in the characteristically granoblastic matrix.

 

hornfels facies. A loosely defined term used to denote the physical conditions involved, or the set of mineral assemblages produced, by thermal (contact) metamorphism at relatively shallow depths in the earth's crust (AGI).

Other articles: Interstate 15 near Devil Peak

Locations: Devil Peak.
Full Size ImageDevil Peak at the south end of the Mesquite Valley  

hypabyssal of or having to do with rocks that have crystallized under conditions intermediate between the plutonic and extrusive environments.
 

igneous rock. An aggregate on interlocking silicate formed by the cooling and solidification of a natural silicate melt.

Other articles: Glossary welded_tuff Eastern Mojave Geology 420300  

ignimbrite. 1. A silicic volcanic rock forming thick, massive, compact, lavalike sheets that cover a wide area in the central part of North Island, New Zealand. The rock is chiefly a fine grained rhyolitic tuff formed mainly of glass particles (shards) in which crystals of feldspar, quartz, and occasionally hypersthene or hornblende are embedded. The glass particles are firmly "welded" and bend around the crystals, and evidently were of a viscous nature when they were deposited. The deposits are believed to have been produced by the eruption of dense clouds of incandescent volcanic glass in a semimolten or viscous state from groups of fissures. Syn: welded tuff. 2. The deposit of a fiery cloud or pyroclastic flow, extensive and generally thick with well developed prismatic jointing.

 

indurated. Rendered hard; confined in geological use to masses hardened by heat, baked, etc., as distinguished from hard or compact in natural structure. In modern usage the term is applied to rocks hardened not only by heat, but also by pressure and cementation.

Other articles: Glossary alluvial_fan
Full Size ImageThe Racetrack and the Grandstand.  

inselberg. A lone, resistant, steep sided hill or mountain, formerly part of a larger mountain range, that is surrounded by alluvial fan or playa deposits.

 

intrusive rock. A rock that solidified from a mass of once molton material that invaded the earth's crust but did not reach the surface.

Other articles: Glossary polycarpic semelparous  

iteroparous (Latin "again" "birth") Refers to plants that have repeated periods of reproduction. See also: polycarpic.
Antonym: semelparous, monocarpic.

Literature Cited:
- Stearn, William T., 2004.

Other articles: Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens Pursh, 1814  

♃; (Astromonic symbol for Jupiter). Willdenow (1809) uses this symbol for a perennial plant. Stearn (2004, p. 352) confirms this use.
 

lacustrine. 1. Produced by or belonging to lakes. 2. Of, or pertaining to, or formed or growing in, or inhabiting, lakes.

 

lahar. 1. Landslide or mudflow of pyroclastic material on the flank of a volcano. 2. Deposit produced by such a landslide. May be wet or dry, hot or cold.

 

lapilli. Essential, accessory, and accidental volcanic ejecta ranging mostly from 4 mm. to 32 mm. in diameter.

Literature Cited:
- American Geological Institute, 1983.
- Reynolds, Robert E., 2001.
- Reynolds, Robert E., 2006.
- Wyatt, Anthony., 1992..

Other articles: Field Notes 20010422100 at Field Trip Stop 1-3 Glossary spheroidalw

Locations: Silurian Hills.  

Liesegang Weathering. 1. Secondary, nested rings or bands caused by rhythmic precepitation within a fluid saturated rock (AGI, 1983). 2. A small-scale, more or less concentric, chemical reaction effect, seen as discrete, but largely contiguous, structures throughout a part of a rock body. Each structure shows, on an exposed surface, ring-shaped bands of concentric colour. The effect is probably caused by rhythmic precipitation in a gel (a jelly-like colloidal solution), perhaps a kind of weathering process........… (Wyatt, 1992).

Full Size Image
Liesegang weathering in the Silurian Hills.
 

lithification. The process by which unconsolidated rock-forming materials are converted into a consolidated or coherent state, i.e., turned into a rock.

Other articles: Field Notes 200806060542  

Malphigian hair Straight appressed hairs attached by the middle and tapering to free tips; pick-shaped.

Other articles: Glossary garrigue  

maquis

If fires in the evergreen forest are too frequent to allow natural regeneration of the trees, or man removes them for timber, then degraded vegetation of low shrubs (2 – 4m high) occurs. This is called maquis and is usually dominated by Cistus spp., Pistacia lentiscus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Juniperus spp., lavenders, Arbutus and other ericaceous plants.Joan Head Editor, The Lavender Bag

Literature Cited:
- Barbour, Michael G., Jack H. Burk, and Wanna Pitts, 1987.  

mast year. A year in which an iteroparous woody perennial reproduces heavily, followed by one or more years of little or no reproduction. Mast years are common in temperate trees and serve to increase the chances of seeds escaping granivores. Mast years may be unpredictable when the reproductive cycle responds to external rather than physiological changes. Alternatively, irregular reproduction may be caused by severe resource depletion during the mast year. The period of time necessary to replace the energy reserves is often unpredictable because it varies with environmental conditions. Predictable mast years are found in conifers where the reproductive process takes a predictable time to complete (Barbour, et al., 1987)

 

mesa. A table land; a flat topped mountain or other elevation bounded on at least one side by a steep cliff; a plateau terminating on one or more sides in a steep cliff (AGI).

 

metamorphic rock. "Changed-form rock", any rock that has been changed in texture or composition by heat, pressure, or chemically active fluids after its original formation. Conditions of formation usually found miles below the earth's surface, thousands of atmospheres of pressure, cloe to the melting point.

 

mineral. A naturally occurring solid element or compound. It is inorganic, has a definite composition, or ranges within definite limits. It has an orderly internal atomic structure and may express this in the form of visible crystals.

Other articles: Glossary polycarpic semelparous Frasera albomarginata 100700  

monocarpic. Flowering and bearing fruit only once (Webster). See also semelparous.

Other articles: Field Notes 26-May-04 Nevada Highway 265 near the Monocline  

monocline

  • A fold in layered rock that creates a slight bend.
  • Double flexure connecting strata at one level with same strata at another level.
  • single upward band or fold.

Other articles: Field Notes Coll. No. 596, 16 Jun 2010. Glossary dioecious  

strong>monoecious. Male and female (or staminate and pistillate) unisexual structures (flowers) on the same plant. Said of a taxon having only unisexual fertile reproductive structures. See also: dioecious. Example: Alnus rhombifolia.

Literature Cited:
- Whipple, Kelin X., and Thomas Dunne, 1992.

Other articles: Onion Valley Road 39900 Glossary rheology  

morphology. The shape of the earth's surface. The study of the shape of any surface, whether a planetary body, a fossil bone, or a mathematical abstract such as a toroid (donut).

 

mudflow, volcanic. See "lahar".

 

nuee ardente. See ash flow.

Other articles: California Highway 120 at Nunatak Nature Trail Field Notes 1-Aug-07 at Nunatak Nature Trail
Full Size ImageNunatak Nature Trail  

nunatak. A nunatak is an isolated knob or peak of bedrock that projects prominently above the surface of a glacier and is surrounded by glacier ice. The word is derived from the Eskimo for "lonely peak."

Literature Cited:
- Wikipedia editors, 2015.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 95, Layia glandulosa
Full Size ImageFlower parts of Coll. No. 145, Sanvitalia abertii  

palea. In botany, has two separate meanings. It may be used as an alternate term for one of the receptacular bracts found in the family Asteraceae. Otherwise, it refers to one of the bract-like organs in the spikelet of the grass family, Poaceae.

  • Asteraceae
    • Known collectively as "chaff", the paleas, when present, each subtend one of the florets that cover the upper surface of the receptacle.
  • Poaceae
    • The palea is the uppermost of the two chaff-like bracts that enclose the grass floret (the other being the lemma). It is often cleft at the tip, implying that it may be a double structure derived from the union of two separate organs. This has led to suggestions that it may be what remains of the grass sepals (outer perianth whorl): specifically the two adaxial members of the three membered whorl typical of monocots. The third member may be absent or it may be represented by the lemma, according to different botanical interpretations.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 348, Chaenactis carphoclinia var. carphoclinia
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Coll. No. 902, Madia glomerata
Full Size Image
Disc flowers of Coll. No. 1109, Balsamorhiza sagittata

Literature Cited:
- Forbes, H. C., W. R. Ferren, and J. R. Haller, 1991.

Locations: Fish Slough.  

palustrine. Pertaining to material growing or deposited in a marsh or paludal environment.
 

palynology. The study of pollen and other spores and their dispersal, and applications thereof.

 

patina. A thin, light colored, outer layer produced by wind action and weathering.

Literature Cited:
- Strudley, Mark W., A. Brad Murray, and P. K. Haff, 2006.

Other articles: Amboy Road Sheep Hole Pass Field Notes 22-Apr-08 Eastern Mojave Geology about pediments

Locations: Sheep Hole Pass.  

pediment. A sloping rock surface forming a ramp up to the front of a mountain range in an arid region. It may be covered by thin alluvium.

Full Size Image
Pediment in Sheephole Pass
 

pediplain. A widely extending, dominantly gentle sloping or rolling surface which is rock cut and alluviated.

 

pelean eruption. Designating or pertaining to a type of volcanic eruption characterized by explosions of extreme violence and the formation of nuees ardentes, or ash flows. The lavas involved in this type of eruption are generally extremely silicic and viscous.

Other articles: Frasera albomarginata 100200  

perennial. Lasting from year to year (Munz, 1965). 3. Bot. having a life span of more than two years (Webster).

Other articles: Black Canyon Road Woods Mtns Petroglyphs Wild Horse Canyon Road 60000  

petroglyph An ancient line drawing or carving on a rock.
 

phenology n. Study of periodic biological phenomena, as breeding, flowering, and migration, esp. as related to climate (Webster).

Other articles: Glossary taxonomy Frasera albomarginata 102160  

phylogeny n. The evolutionary history of a group or lineage; the description and explanation of the temporal sequence of morphological, ecological and biogeographical changes of a taxon; phylogenesis. 2. The origin and evolution of higher taxa; the explanation of phylogenesis.

Other articles: Wild Horse Canyon Road 60000  

pictograph An ancient drawing or painting on a rock surface.

Other articles: Field Notes Coll. No. 699, 9 Aug 2011
Full Size ImageColl. No. 699, Pellaea bridgesii  

pinnae.A primary division of a pinnate leaf, esp. of a fern.

 

plain. A region of general uniform slope, comparatively level, of considerable extent, and not broken by marked elevations and depressions; it may be an extensive valley floor or a plateau summit. Any extent of level or nearly level land (AGI).

 

playa. 1. The flat floor of a bolson in an arid region. It is underlain by silts, clays, and complex associations of different salts. 2. The shallow central basin of a desert plain, in which water gathers after a rain and is evaporated (AGI).


Full Size ImageThe Racetrack as seen from a distance.  

playa lake. An intermittent lake which occupies the flat floor of a bolson.

Other articles: Glossary iteroparous monocarpic  

polycarpic. Refers to plants that have repeated periods of reproduction. Synonym: iteroparous. Antonym: monocarpic.

 

prehnite-pumpellyite. The characteristic assemblages of this facies are developed only from fine-grained unstable starting materials such as glassy volcanic rocks, pyroclastics and greywackes. Diagnostic minerals may also occur in veins cutting largely unrecrystallized rocks.

Literature Cited:
- Schubert, Brian A., Tim K. Lowenstein, Michael N. Timofeeff and Matthew A. Parker, 2009.

Other articles: Badwater Road near Badwater Basin Glossary archaea

Locations: Badwater Basin.  

procaryote. A unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei; bacteria are the prime example but also included are blue-green algae and actinomycetes and mycoplasma.

 

pumice. An excessively cellular glassy lava, generally of the composition of rhyolite.

 

pyroclastic. A general term applied to detrital volcanic material that have been explosively or aerially ejected from a volcanic vent. Also a general term for the class of rocks made up of these materials.

 

pyroclastic rock. Fragmental rock blown out by volcanic explosion and deposited from the air. Rocks formed from bombs, blocks, cinders, ash, tuff, and pumice.

  quartz monzonite A phaneritic rock containing major plagioclase, orthoclase, and quartz, with minor biotite, and hornblende and accessory apatite, zircon, and opaque oxides. With slightly different chemistry, it grades into granodiorite or granite.
  rachis The axis of a spike or raceme or of a compound leaf.

Other articles: Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens Chrysothamnus  

receptaculum. Latin. Anatomy. A receptacle. Plural receptacula)

 

refugia. As used in ecology, refers to small areas, or even microclimates, where a species can survive when it could not do so in the surrounding area.

 

relict n. An organism or species of an earlier era surviving in an environment which has changed considerably (Webster). A localized plant left over from an earlier geological period (Munz 1965).

Literature Cited:
- Klinka, K., Vladimir J. Krajina, A. Ceska, and A. M. Scagel, 1989.

Other articles: Glossary silique
Full Size ImageColl. No. 479, ?  

replum. The framework of some pods, as the cress, which remains after the valves drop off.

Literature Cited:
- Whipple, Kelin X., and Thomas Dunne, 1992.

Other articles: Onion Valley Road 39900 Glossary morphology  

rheology The study of the deformation and flow of matter.
 

rock. An aggregate of minerals of different types which may be in varying proportions. Contrast with "mineral".

Literature Cited:
- American Geological Institute, 1960.

Other articles: Glossary batholith U. S. Highway 395 50200

Locations: Mount Tom.  

roof pendant. Older rocks projecting down from the roof into a batholith. On a map the roof pendant is completely surrounded by the rocks of the batholith

Full Size Image
Mt. Tom, 12 miles west of Bishop, Inyuo County, California

Other articles: Frasera albomarginata 100300  

rosette. A crowded cluster of radiating leaves appearing to rise from the ground (Munz, 1965).

Other articles: Field Notes Coll. No. 1518, 29 Jul 2016
Full Size ImageRuncinate leaves of Coll. No. 1515, Stephanomeria pauciflora  

runcinate.. Pinnately incised, with the lobes or teeth curved backward.
 

salina. A saline playa, that is mostly underlain by complex associations of different salts.

Other articles: Field Notes 2-Aug-08 at Navy Beach

Locations: Navy Beach.
Full Size ImageSand tufa at Navy Beach.  

sand tufa. Sand tufa is formed when fresh water springs percolate through the sandy lake bed of an alkaline lake. Contact with the alkaline salts cause calcium carbonate in the fresh water to precipitate in the sand. If the lake level drops, the uncemented sand can be eroded away, either by water or wind, leaving the sand tufa behind.

Full Size Image
Sand tufa at Navy Beach.

Literature Cited:
- Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de, 1791.
- Stearn, William T., 2004.

Other articles: Salvia reflexa Hornem. Lamarck, 1791  

(Astronomic symbol for Saturn). In Lamarck (1791), used to indicate a woody plant, i.e., a tree or shrub (Stearn, 2004).
 

scoria. Volcanic slag. Pyroclastic ejecta, usually of basic composition, characterized by marked vesicularity, dark color, heaviness, and a texture that is partly glassy and partly crystalline. Fragments of scoria between 4 mm. and 32 mm. are essentially equivalent to volcanic cinders.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D. and L. W. Durrell, 1957.
- Welsh, Stanley L., et al., 1987.  

secund Borne or directed to one side of the axis (Harrington and Durrell, 1957). Arranged on one side only; unilateral (Welsh, Stanley L., et al. 1987).

 

sediment. The loose fragments of minerals and rocks which are transported by the wind, rivers, and glaciers as well as currents in lakes and the ocean.

Literature Cited:
- Ettensohn, Frank R., Nicholas Rast, and Carlton E. Brett, 2002.
- Mazumder, Rajat, A. J. (Tom) van Loon, and Makoto Arima, 2006.
- Wetzler, Nadav, Shmuel Marco, and Eyal Heifetz, 2010.  

seismite. Sedimentary beds disturbed by seismic shaking.

Full Size Image
Deformed sediments near Mill Creek

Other articles: Glossary iteroparous monocarpic Frasera albomarginata 100700  

semelparous. Produces seed only once in a lifetime. See also monocarpic.
  sempervirent. Evergreen.
 

shale. a laminated sediment in which the constituent particles are predominantly of the clay grade.

 

silicle. A short silique usually having a length less than three times its width. [Latin silicula, diminutive of siliqua, seed pod.]

Other articles: Field Notes Coll No. 479 Glossary replum  

silique. A dry, dehiscent, elongated fruit, characteristic of the mustard family, having two valves that fall away leaving a central partition. [French, from Old French, from Latin siliqua, seed pod.]

Literature Cited:
- American Geological Institute, 1983.

Other articles: Caruthers Canyon Road in Caruthers Cyn Glossary liesegang
Full Size ImageUnusual deep weathering pattern.  

spheroidal weathering. A form of chemical weathering in which concentric shells of decayed rock (ranging in size from 2 cm to 2 m) are successively loosened and separated from a block of rock by water penetrating the bounding joints of other fractures and atttacking the block from all sides. It is similar to the larger-scale exfoliation produced usually by mechanical weathering. Syn: onion-skin weathering; concentric weathering; spherical weathering (AGI, 1983) Different from Liesegang Rings.

  spirifer. Any one of numerous species of fossil brachipods of the genus Spirifer, or Delthyris, and allied genera, in which the long calcareous supports of the arms form a large spiral, or helix, on each side.

Other articles: Field Notes 13 Jul 2010
Full Size ImageWestern columbine (Aquilegia formosa) growing in my garden.
Full Size ImageFlower of Collection No. 659  

spur. [botany] Hollow, often conic, projection or expansion, generally of a perianth part and containing nectar (example, Aquilegia formosa flower).

Full Size ImageIllustration of a “stipe” on Coll. No. 557  
stipe. [botany] A stalk or stalklike structure, as the stemlike support of the camp of a mushroom or the main stem of a fern frond. For Eriogonum cespitosum, TJM1 refers to a "stalk-like base short, distinct." TJM2 says, "stipe 0.5–1 mm."
 

stratification. The structure produced by the deposition of sediments in layers or beds. May be found in pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks.

 

stream capture. The diversion of the upper part of a stream by the headward growth of another stream. Also called beheading, piracy, and stream robbery.

Other articles: Field Notes 19-Apr-08
Full Size ImageStromatolite at base of Bouse Formation  

stromatolite A calcareous deposit, secreted by calcareous algae in the form of laminated domes and columns.

Literature Cited:
- Baldwin, Bruce G., Douglas H. Goldman, David J. Keil, Robert Patterson, and Thomas J. Rosatti, 2012.

Other articles: Forest Road 1N02 at Sagehen Mdw Field Notes Coll. No. 887
Full Size ImageColl. No. 887, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus ssp. puberulus, illustrating “style appendages.”  

style appendage. Non-stigmatic style tissue that grows distally from the stigmatic surface. Often seen in Chrysothamnus and Ericameria where it can be a distinguishing character. For example, for my collection no. 887, couplet 1 in TJM2 (Baldwin, et al., 2012) leads away from C. depressus because the style appendages are shorter than the stigmatic portion.

Literature Cited:
- Stearn, William T., 2004.
- Willdenow, Carl Ludwig, 1809.

Other articles: Salvia reflexa Hornem. Willdenow, 1809  

(Astronomic symbol for the Sun.) In Willdenow (1809), this symbol is used to indicate an annual plant. Stearn (2004, p. 352) states that the symbol can mean the plant is monocarpic or annual.
 

supergene. Applied to ores or ore minerals that have been formed by generally descending water. Ores or minerals formed by downward enrichment.

Other articles: Glossary anticline  

syncline. A configuration of folded, stratified rock in which the rocks dip downward from opposite directions to come together in a trough. The reverse of an "anticline".

Other articles: Glossary autecology Vegetation of the Mid Hills 62800  

synecology n. study of groups of organisms, often in a natural setting (Oosting 1956:12). The study of the environmental interrelationships among communities of organisms (Webster).

Other articles: Wild Horse Canyon Road 60000  

tafoni. Cavernous weathering features which have arch-shaped entrances, convex walls, overhanging upper margins, and fairly smooth, gently sloping floors.

 

talus. A collection of fallen disintegrated material which has formed a slope at the foot of a steeper declivity. Synonym: scree (AGI).

Other articles: Glossary phylogeny  

taxonomy n. The theory and practice of describing, naming and classifying organism; systematics; biosystematics, genomy.

Compare to phylogeny.

 

tephra. A collective term for all clastic volcanic materials which during an eruption are ejected from a crater or from some other type of vent and transported through the air; includes volcanic dust, ash, cinders, lapilli, scoria, pumice, bombs, and blocks. Syn: volcanic ejecta. (AGI)

Other articles: Field Notes 22 Jul 2010
Full Size ImageDetail of Coll. No. 672, Rosa woodsii var. ultramontana  

terete. Adjective: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges.

The prickles of Rosa woodsii var. ultramontana are described as being terete.

 

terrace. Benches and terraces are relatively flat, horizontal, or gently inclined surfaces, sometimes long and narrow, which are bounded by a steeper ascending slope on one side and by a steeper descending slope on the opposite side. Both forms, when typically developed, are step like in character (AGI). Benches are smaller than terraces. An example of a terrace can be found in lower Opal Wash, while benches are found on the west side of Wild Horse Canyon, north of the Ceremonial Site.

 

topographic. Of or pertaining to the forms found at the earth's surface. The configuration of the earth's surface as it forms valleys, ridges, peaks, etc.

 

tuff. A rock formed of compacted volcanic fragments, generally smaller than 4 mm. in diameter.

 

turion. An overwintering structure that is scaley or often thick and fleshy that detaches, and then geminates or starts growth in the spring.

 

turtleback. Large smoothly curved topographic surface underlain by folded metamorphic rocks in the Death Valley region; resembles a structural nose with amplitude up to several thousand feet.

 

turtleback fault. Low angle fault which has brought Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks into contact with metamorphics at a turtleback surface; interpreted as a folded overthrust or as a plane along which normal faulting or extensive landsliding has occurred.

 

Vertical Angle Bench Mark (VABM). A marked point of known elevation, established through survey of vertical angles (????).

 

volcanic ash. See "ash, volcanic".

 

volcano. Landform developed by the accumulation of cooled molten rock products near a central vent of opening.

 

wash. A watercourse, usually dry, with a loose surface of sand, gravel, boulders, etc..

 

watercourse. A natural channel for water.

Other articles: Eastern Mojave Climate 31200  

weather. The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, described by specification of variables such as terperature, moisture, wind velocity and barometric pressure.

Other articles: Wild Horse Canyon Road Lobo Point 60000 Glossary Aso_lava eutaxite ignimbrite Eastern Mojave Geology 340000 669500  

welded tuff. A tuff which has been indurated by the combined action of heat retained by the particles and the enveloping hot gases.

Other articles: Frasera albomarginata 100500  

whorl. Arranged in a circular pattern, radiating from the center.

Literature Cited:
- Lackey, Jade Star, and John W. Valley, 2004.

Other articles: U. S. Highway 395 at Laurel Mtn

Locations: Laurel Mountain.  

wollastonite. A triclinic mineral of the pyroxenoid group, CaSiO3. It is found in contact-metamorphosed linestones, and occurs usually in cleavable masses or sometimes in tabular twinned crystals. It is used in making wall and floor tile.
 

yardang. Irregular ridges, commonly alternating with round-bottomed troughs, formed by eolian erosion.

 

zeolite. A generic term for a large group of hydrous aluminosilicates that are analogous in composition to the feldspars; have a ratio of (Al + Si) to nonhydrous oxygen of 1:2; and are characterized by their easy and reversible loss of water of hydration and by their ready fusion and swelling when strongly heated. Zeolites have long been known to occur as well-formed crystals in cavities in basalt. Of more significance is their occurrence as authigenic minerals, especially in beds of tuff.

 

zygomorphic. (of a flower) Having only one plane of symmetry, as in a pea or snapdragon; bilaterally symmetrical.

 

Literature Cited

  A list of all literature cited by this web site can be found in the Bibliography.
  Ackerfield, Jennifer. 2015. Flora of Colorado. Fort Worth, TX 76107-3400: Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 2015.
  American Geological Institute. 1960. Dictionary of Geological Terms, 2nd Ed. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday. {TAS}
  American Geological Institute. 1983. Dictionary of Geological Terms, 3rd Edition. New York.: Doubleday Books., 1983..
  Baldwin, Bruce G., Douglas H. Goldman, David J. Keil, Robert Patterson, and Thomas J. Rosatti. 2012. The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, January 2012. {TAS}
  Barbour, Michael G., Jack H. Burk, and Wanna Pitts. 1987. Terrestrial Plant Ecology. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., 1987. {TAS}
  Best. Myron G. 1982. Igneous and metamorphic petrology. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1982.
  Bjørnerud, M. G., and H Austrheim. 2004. Inhibited eclogite formation: The key to the rapid growth of strong and buoyant Archean continental crust. Geology. 32(9):765-768.
  Biness, Naomi L., and Mark D. Zoback. 2006. Mapping stress and structurally controlled crustal shear velocity anisotropy in California. Geology. 34(10):825-828. {TAS-pdf}
  Coleman, R. G., D. E. Lee, L. B. Beatty, and W. W. Brannock. 1965. Eclogites and eclogites: Their differences and similarities. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 76: 483-508.
  Ettensohn, Frank R., Nicholas Rast, and Carlton E. Brett. 2002. Ancient Seismites. Special Paper 359. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America, 2002.
  Forbes, H. C., W. R. Ferren, and J. R. Haller. 1991. The vegetation and flora of Fish Slough and vicinity, Inyo and Mono Counties, California. pp. 99-130 in Hall, Clarence A., Jr., and Victoria Doyle-Jones. Plant biology of eastern California. Los Angeles, Calif: University of California, White Mountain Research Station, 1991. {TAS}
  Harrington, H. D. and L. W. Durrell. 1957. How To Identify Plants. Chicago, Illinois: The Swallow Press, Inc., 1957. {TAS}
  Holmgren, Arthur H., Leila M. Schultz, and Timothy K. Lowrey. 1976. Sphaeromeria, a genus closer to Artemisia than to Tanacetum (Asteraceae: Anthemideae). Brittonia. 28: 252-262.
  Klinka, K., Vladimir J. Krajina, A. Ceska, and A. M. Scagel. 1989. Indicator Plants of Coastal British Columbia. 1989.
  Lackey, Jade Star, and John W. Valley. 2004. Complex patterns of fluid flow during wollastonite formation in calcareous sandstone at Laurel Mountain, Mount Morrison Pendant, California. GSA Bulletin. 116(1/2):6.93. {TAS-pdf}
  Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de. 1791. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois re`gnes de la nature. Botanique. (Source: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/6086, date retrieved: 2 October 2016).
  Mazumder, Rajat, A. J. (Tom) van Loon, and Makoto Arima. 2006. Soft-sediment deformation structures in the Earth's oldest seismites. Sedimentary Geology. 186: 19-26. {TAS-pdf}
  Reynolds, Robert E. 2001. The Changing Face of the East Mojave Desert. April 2001.
  Reynolds, Robert E. 2006. Making Tracks Across the Southwest. 2006 Desert Research Symposium Field Guide and Abstracts from Proceedings. April 2006. {TAS}
  Schubert, Brian A., Tim K. Lowenstein, Michael N. Timofeeff and Matthew A. Parker. 2009. How do prokaryotes survive in fluid inclusions in halite for 30 k.y.?. Geology. 37(12):1059-1062. {TAS-pdf}
  Stearn, William T. 2004. Botanical Latin. 4th edition. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, 2004.
  Strudley, Mark W., A. Brad Murray, and P. K. Haff. 2006. Emergence of pediments, tors, and piedmont junctions from a bedrock weathering-regolith thickness feedback. Geology. 34(10):805-808. {TAS-pdf}
  Welsh, Stanley L., et al. 1987. A Utah Flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs. 9. {TAS}
  Welsh, Stanley L., N. Duane Atwood, Sherel Goodrich, and Larry C. Higgins. 1993. A Utah Flora. Second Edition, revised. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, 1993. {TAS}
  Wetzler, Nadav, Shmuel Marco, and Eyal Heifetz. 2010. Quantitative analysis of seismogeni shear-induced turbulence in lake sediments. Geology. 38(4):303-306. {TAS-pdf}
  Whipple, Kelin X., and Thomas Dunne. 1992. The influence of debris-flow rheology on fan morphology, Owens Valley, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 104: 887-900. {TAS-pdf}
  Wikipedia editors. 2015. Palea (botany). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
  Willdenow, Carl Ludwig. 1809. Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Botanici Berolinensis. Part I. Berlin: 1809. (Retrieved: 1 October 2016, http://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/ing/Libro.php?Libro=1684)
  Wyatt, Anthony. 1992.. Challinor's Dictionary of Geology. Cardiff, Wales.: University of Wales Press, 1992..
If you have a question or a comment you may write to me at: tas4@schweich.com I sometimes post interesting questions in my FAQ, but I never disclose your full name or address.  


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Date and time this article was prepared: 5/18/2017 12:07:54 PM