Eastern Mojave Vegetation Notes to accompany the Checklist Flora of the Mono Lake basin. (Continued)  
 

Tom Schweich  

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Topics in this Article:
Keys
Schemas
Descriptions
Vegetation
Source Data
Pending
Literature Cited
 Here I put stuff I would have forgotten, had I not put it here.
 

Descriptions

 

Vegetation

 
 

Wetlands

 
 

Forest and Woodland

 
  Juniperus grandis woodland alliance
  Juniperus osteosperma woodland alliance

Literature Cited:
- Cheng, S., 2004.
- Griffin, J. R., and W. B. Critchfield, 1972.
- Keeler-Wolf, T., M. Schindel, S. San, P. Moore, and D. Hickson, 2003.
- Potter, D. A., 1994.
- Thorne, Robert F., Allan A. Schoenherr, Charlie D. Clements, and James A. Young, 2007.  

Pinus contorta ssp. murrayana Forest Alliance
Lodgepole Pine Forest

Pinus contorta ssp. murrayana is the dominant or co-dominant in the tree canopy with Abies concolor, A. magnifica, A. x shastensis, Juniperus grandis, Pinus albicaulis, P. balfouriana, P. flexilis, P. monticola, Populus tremuloides, and Tsuga mertensiana. Trees < 40 m; canopy is open to continuous. Shrub layer is sparse to intermittent. Herbaceous layer is sparse or abundant.

Membership Rules

Pinus contorta ssp. murrayana > 5% absolute cover in the tree canopy; other conifers such as P. jeffreyi and Juniperus jeffreyi are < 5% absolute cover (Potter 1994).

Pinus contorta ssp. murrayana > 50% relative cover in the tree canopy; it may codominate with P. albicaulis (Keeler-Wolf et al. 2003b).

Regional Status

Mono (341Dd, Dj, Dl). Stands are extensive at higher elevations in upland settings, including those at Indiana Summit and Sentinal Meadow RNAs (Cheng 2004, Thorne et al. 2007). Individuals, groves, and a single valley-bottom stand occur in the White Mountains (Griffin and Critchfield 1972).

Literature Cited:
- Cheng, S., 2004.
- Keeler-Wolf, T., M. Schindel, S. San, P. Moore, and D. Hickson, 2003.
- Potter, D. A., 1994.
- Thorne, Robert F., Allan A. Schoenherr, Charlie D. Clements, and James A. Young, 2007.  

Pinus jeffreyi Forest Alliance
Jeffrey Pine Forest

Pinus jeffreyi is dominant or co-dominant in the tree canopy with Abies concolor, A. magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus grandis, Pinus attenuata, P. balfouriana, P. contorta ssp. Murrayana, P. coulteri, P. monticola, P. ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus chrysolepis, Q. kelloggii, and Q. wislizeni. Trees < 60 m; canopy is open to continuous. Shrub layer is sparse to intermittent. Herbaceous layer is sparse, abundant, or grassy.

Membership Rules

Pinus jeffreyi > 5% absolute cover in the tree canopy; Abies concolor and P. contorta ssp. murrayana less than or equal to 5% absolute cover; sometimes A. magnifica > 5% absolute cover, P. jeffreyi scattered (Potter 1994).

Pinus jeffreyi > 50% relative cover in the tree canopy or P. jeffreyi may have a similar cover to that of other tree species including A. concolor, A. magnifica, and J. grandis (Keeler-Wolf et al. 2003b)

Regional Status

Mono (341D). Stands are extensive at higher elevations and in places uninterrupted from those in the Sierra Nevada (Thorne et al. 2007). Stands have typical Great Basin understory species, as at Indianan Summit and Sentinel Meadow RNAs (Cheng 2004). Those in the White Mountains are on nutrient-poor, igneous substrates (Elliott-Fisk 1986).

--- Abstracted from Sawyer, Keeler-Wolf, and Evens 2008.

Literature Cited:
- Keeler-Wolf, T., C. Roye, and K. Lewis, 1998.
- Thomas, K. A., J. Franklin, T. Keeler-Wolf, and P. Stine, 2004.  

Pinus monophylla Woodland Alliance
Singleleaf Pinyon Woodlands

Pinus monophylla is dominant or co-dominant in the tree canopy with Juniperus californica, Juniperus grandis, J. osteosperma, Pinus jeffreyi, and Quercus chrysolepis. Shrubs include Artemisia arbuscula, A. tridentata, A. nova, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Ephedra viridis, Ericameria nauseosa, Grayia spinosa, Purshia tridentata, Purshia mexicana, Opuntia erinacea, Quercus cornelius-muelleri, Q. john-tuckeri, and Yucca baccata. Trees < 15 m; canopy is open to intermittent. Shrub layer is intermittent to continuous. Herbaceous layer is sparse or grassy.

Membership Rules

Pinus monophylla > 5% absolute cover in the tree canopy (Keeler-Wolf et al. 1998b).

Pinus monophylla > 25% absolute cover in the tree canopy; shrub cover is less than tree cover (Thomas et al. 2004).

Pinus monophylla >= 1% but less than 25% cover. Juniperus osteosperma or J. californica present. P. monophylla occurs over a sparse to relatively dense cover of shrubs (Thomas et al. 2004).

Regional Status

Mono (341D). Widespread stands have high affiliation with Great Basin. Artemisia, Cercocarpus, and Juniperus are principal associates. Substantial recent losses in some areas have resulted from human-caused fires and grazing, and Bromus tectorum is common in many disturbed stands. St. Andre et al. (1965) related the presence of stands and fluctuations in size to grazing history and climatic events in the White Mountains.

--- Abstracted from Sawyer, Keeler-Wolf, and Evens 2008.

  Populus fremontii alliance
  Populus tremuloides alliance
  Populus trichocarpa alliance
  Salix laevigata alliance
 

Woodland

 
 

Shrubland

 
  Ephedra viridis shrubland alliance
  Salix exigua shrubland alliance
  Salix geyeriana shrubland alliance
  Salix lasiolepis alliance
  Atriplex confertifolia shrubland alliance
  Sarcobatus vermiculatus shrubland alliance

Literature Cited:
- Keeler-Wolf, T., M. Schindel, S. San, P. Moore, and D. Hickson, 2003.
- Sawyer, John O., Todd Keeler-Wolf, and Julie M. Evens, 2008.
- Thomas, K. A., J. Franklin, T. Keeler-Wolf, and P. Stine, 2004.

Locations: Lee Vining Canyon.  

Cercocarpus ledifolius Shrubland Alliance
Curl Leaf Mountain Mahogany Scrub

Cercocarpus ledifolius is dominant or co-dominant in the shrub canopy with Amelanchier alnifolia, Chamaebatiaria millefolium, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Eriogonum umbellatum, Holodiscus discolor, Prunus virginiana, Purshia tridentata, and Ribes cereum. Emergent Juniperus occidentalis, J. osteosperma, Pinus albicaulis, P. balfouriana, P. contorta ssp. murrayiana, P. flexilis, P. jeffreyi, and P. monophylla trees may be present at low cover. Shrubs < 5 m.; canopy is intermittent to open. Herbaceous layer is sparse to intermittent and commonly grassy.

Membership Rules

Cercocarpus ledifolius > 50% relative cover in the tall shrub or short tree canopy (Keeler-Wolf et al. 2003b, Thomas et al. 2004).

Regional Status

Mono (341D). This alliance is widespread in the rocky highland of the section. Stands are common on the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada associated with Juniperus grandis and pine alliances (Keeler-Wolf et al. 2003b). Stands in the Lee Vining Canyon area that burned in the past decade show moderate seedling establishment.

--- Abstracted from Sawyer, Keeler-Wolf, and Evens, 2008

Literature Cited:
- Keeler-Wolf, T., M. Schindel, S. San, P. Moore, and D. Hickson, 2003.
- Neal, D. L., 1994.
- Sawyer, John O., Todd Keeler-Wolf, and Julie M. Evens, 2008.
- Thomas, K. A., J. Franklin, T. Keeler-Wolf, and P. Stine, 2004.  

Purshia tridentata Shrubland Alliance
Bitterbrush Scrub

Purshia tridentata is dominant or co-dominant in the shrub canopy with Artemisia tridentata, Ceanothus cuneatus, Cercocarpus ledifolius, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Ephedra viridis, Ericameria nauseosa, Prunus andersonii, Symphoricarpos rotundiflorus, and Tetradymia canescens. Emergent Juniperus, Pinus, or Yucca brevifolia trees may be present at low cover. Shrubs < 5 m tall; canopy is continuous to open. Herbaceous layer is sparse or grassy.

Membership Rules

Purshia tridentata greater than or equal to 50% relative cover to other important species in the shrub canopy, especially Artemisia tridentata or Ericameria nauseosa (Neal 1994).

Purshia tridentata greather than or equal to 5% absolute cover in the shrub canopy; Ephedra viridis < 1% absolute cover, A. tridentata may codominate (Thomas et al. 2004, Keeler-Wolf et al. 2003b)

Regional Status

Mono (341D) Stands are widespread, mixed with those of the Artemisia tridentata alliance. Stands were extensive in the south and east parts of the Mono Basin; however, several large fires in the past decade have reduced their extent.

---Abstracted from Sawyer, Keeler-Wolf, and Evens, 2008

  Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula Shrubland Alliance
Little Sagebrush Scrub

There is only one J. W. Congdon collection of A. arbuscula from the (lower) Mono Lake basin. Therefore, it is unlikely that a significant patch of this shrubland alliance will be found here.

Literature Cited:
- Manning, M. E., and W. G. Padgett, 1995.  

Artemisia cana Shrubland Alliance
Silver Sagebrush Scrub

Artemisia cana is dominant in the shrub canopy with Artemisia nova, A. tridentata, Ericameria nauseosa, Rosa woodsii, and Sarcobatus vermiculatus.

Shrubs < 2 m.; canopy is open to continuous. Herbaceous layer is sparse to intermittent and usually grassy.

Membership Rules

Artemisia cana > 15% absolute cover in the shrub canopy (Manning and Padgett 1995).

Regional Status

Mono (341D). Stands occupy moist meadow and riparian edges, with descriptions from the Carson and Walker River watersheds (Weixelman et al. 1999), Sweetwater Range (Manning and Padgett 1995), Bridgeport Valley area (Keeler-Wolf et al. 2003b), and several subsections (S. Smith 1998). They occur in areas with recurrent grazing and browsing of livestock with Achillea millefolium, Agropyron trachycaulum, Muhlenbergia richardsonis, and Poa pratensis.

--- Abstracted from Sawyer, Keeler-Wolf, and Evens 2008.

  Artemisia rothrockii shrubland alliance
  Artemisia tridentata shrubland alliance
  Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana shrubland alliance
  Ericameria nauseosa shrubland alliance
  Ericameria parryi shrubland alliance
 

Herbaceous

 
  Typha ( latifolia) herbaceous alliance
  Calamagrostis canadensis herbaceous alliance
  Deschampsia caespitosa herbaceous alliance
  Distichlis spicata herbaceous alliance
  Glyceria elata herbaceous alliance
  Muhlenbergia filiformis herbaceous alliance
  Muhlenbergia richardsonis herbaceous alliance
  Poa pratensis herbaceous alliance
  Carex aquatilis herbaceous alliance
  Carex douglasii Provisional Herbaceous Alliance
Douglas' Sedge Meadows

Carex douglasii is dominant in the herbaceous layer with C. nebrascensis, Deschampsia danthoniodes, Lotus purshianus, and Phlox gracilis. Herbs < 40 cm; cover is open to intermittent.

Observations

small stands of C. douglasii occur, but have not been sampled on flats on the northwest side of Mono Lake.

  Carex lasiocarpa herbaceous alliance
  Carex nebrascensis herbaceous alliance
  Carex simulata herbaceous alliance
  Carex utriculata herbaceous alliance
  Schoenoplectus acutus herbaceous alliance
  Juncus arcticus (var. balticus, mexicanus) herbaceous alliance
  Juncus nevadensis herbaceous alliance
  Veratrum californicum herbaceous alliance
  Iris missouriensis herbaceous alliance
  Holodiscus discolor herbaceous alliance
  Trifolium longipes herbaceous alliance
  Solidago canadensis herbaceous alliance
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Date and time this article was prepared: 7/31/2017 9:37:56 AM