Eastern Mojave Vegetation Autecology of Desert Elkweed Frasera albomarginata S. Watson (Syn: Swertia a.) Gentianaceae in the American Southwest (Continued)  

Tom Schweich  

Home Page
Topics in this Article:
Literature Review
Field Work and Methods
Growth Habits
Relationships to Soils and Other Plants
Life History
Literature Cited
Appendix A -- Field Data
Communications Received.
This paper was originally presented at the 1999 Desert Research Symposium at the San Bernardino County Museum. The research is ongoing and the paper has been updated as new information becomes available.

You may notice a little schizophrenic appearance to names as I abandon Swertia as the genus and migrate to Frasera.


Literature Cited

  A list of all literature cited by this web site can be found in the Bibliography.
    Albee, Beverly, J, Leila M. Shultz, and Sherel Goodrich. 1988. Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Utah. Salt Lake City, Utah.: Utah Museum of Natural History, 1988. (February 7, 2016: appears to be offline.)
    Anonymous. n.d.. Palomares, Spain Medical Surveillance and Environmental Monitoring. {TAS} http://www.eh.doe.gov/health/ihp/indalo/spain.html
    Anonymous. n. d.. A Hiker's Guide to the Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, and Vegetation of Hualapai Mountain Park. n.d.,.
    Beattle, A. J., D. E. Breedlove and P. R. Ehrlich. 1973. The Ecology of the pollinators and predators of Frasera speciosa. Ecology. 54(1):81-91. {TAS}
    Brandegee, T. S. 1903. Flora of the Providence Mountains. Zoe. 5(9):147-153.
    Burd, Martin, Jenny Read, Gordon D. Sanson, and Tanguy Jaffré. 2006. AGE–SIZE PLASTICITY FOR REPRODUCTION IN MONOCARPIC PLANTS. Ecology. 87(11):2755–2764. {TAS-Abs} Cerberiopsis candelabra, a monocarpic tropical tree.
    Card, Hamilton H. 1931. A Revision of the Genus Frasera. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 18.
    Chassot, Phillippe. 2003. A new species of Swertia L. (Gentianaceae) from Nepal. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 141(3):389-394.
    Chassot, P., S. Nemomissa, Y.-M. Yuan, and P. Küpfer. 2001. High paraphyly of Swertia L. (Gentianaceae) in the Gentianella-lineage as revealed by nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence variation. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 229(1-2):1-21. {TAS}
    DeDecker, Mary. 1984. Flora of the northern Mojave Desert, California. Berkeley, CA: Califonia Native Plant Society.. {TAS}
    Deno, Norman C. 1993, 1996. Seed Germination Theory and Practice. {TAS}
    Gilluly, James, and John B. Reeside, Jr. 1928. Sedimentary rocks of the San Rafael Swell and some adjacent areas in eastern Utah. Professional Paper 150-D. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1928. {TAS}
    Gross, Katherine L. 1984. Effects of Seed Size and Growth Form on Seedling Establishment of Six Monocarpic Perennial Plants. The Journal of Ecology. 72(2):369-387. {TAS-Abs} … in non-competitive cover types (litter and bare soil), seedling weight was independent of initial seed weight … relative growth rates of seedlings in non-competitive cover types were inversely related to seed size … in bare soil and litter, the small-seeded species had relative growth rates twice those of the large-seeded species …
    Hegazy, Ahmad K., and Hanan F. Kabiel. 2007. Significance of microhabitat heterogeneity in the spatial pattern and size-class structure of Anastatica hierochuntica L. Acta Oecologica. 31(3):332-342.
    Hegazy, Ahmad K. 2000. Intra-population variation in reproductive ecology and resource allocation of the rare biennial species Verbascum sinaiticum Benth., in Egypt. Journal of Arid Environments. 44(2):185-196.
    HEGZY A. K. ; ISMAIL S. M. 1990. Autecology of the desert monocarpic Rumex cyprius as influenced by water treatment. Acta oecologica. 13(2):193-202.
    Heil, Kenneth D., Steve L. O’Kane, Jr., and Arnold Clifford. 2002. Additions to the Flora of New Mexico from the San Juan Basin Flora Project. The New Mexico Botanist. No. . {TAS-pdf}
    Hickman, James C. (Ed.). 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press..
    Hirschberg, Douglas M., and G. Stephen Pitts. 2000. Digital Geologic Map of Arizona: A Digital Database Derived from the 1983 Printing of the Wilson, Moore, and Cooper 1:500,000-scale Map. USGS Open-File Report 00-409.
    Huxman, Travis E., and Michael E. Loik. 1997. Reproductive Patterns of two Varieties of Yucca whipplei (Liliaceae) with Different Life Histories. International Journal of Plant Sciences. 158(6):778-784.
    Kamenetsky, Rina. 1994. Life Cycle, Flower Initiation, and Propagation of the Desert Geophyte Allium rothii. International Journal of Plant Sciences. 155(5):597-605.
    Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nevada, Reno, 1988.. UC Biosciences: QK173.K3 1988a
    Kearney, Thomas H., Robert H. Peebles, et al. 1960. Arizona Flora. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press., 1960.
    Kuntze, O. C. E. 1891. Revisio generum plantarum. 3 volumes. New York: G. E. Schechert.
    LeBuhn, Gretchen. 2004. Seasonal variation in reproductive traits in Ipomopsis longiflora (Polemoniaceae), a desert annual. Revue Canadienne de Botanique. 82(4):401-408.
    Lenz, Lee W. 1986. Marcus E. Jones: Western Geologist, Mining Engineer & Botanist. Claremont, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1986. {TAS}
    Martin, William C., and Charles R. Hutchins. 1980. A flora of New Mexico. Vaduz: J. Cramer, 1980.
    McBride, Earle F., and M. Dane Picard. 2000. Origin and development of tafoni in Tunnel Spring Tuff, Crystal Peak, Utah, USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 25(8):869 - 879.
    Metcalf, Jessica C., Karen E. Rose, and Mark Rees. 2003. Evolutionary demography of monocarpic perennials. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 18(9):471-480. {TAS}
    Post, Douglas M. 1956. Studies in the Gentianaceae: Frasera and Swertia of North America. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley. 1956..
    Post, Douglas M. 1958. Studies in Gentianaceae. I. Nodal anatomy of Frasera and Swertia perennis. Botanical Gazette. 120(1):1-14.
    Pringle, James S. 1990. Taxonomic notes on Western American Gentianaceae. SIDA. 14(2):179-187.
    Sustainable Ecosystems Institute. 2002. The San Miguel Headwaters - Valley Floor: Scientific Analysis, Synthesis, and Recommendations. Volume I. {TAS-pdf}
    Stark, Lloyd R. 2007. An Evaluation of the Non-vascular Plants of Concern in Clark County. Clark County Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan Grant. Final Report. An excerpt of this report was provided to me by David Charlet.
    St. John, Harold. 1931. Revision of the Genus Swertia (Gentianaceae) of the Americas and the Reduction of Frasera. The American Midland Naturalist. 26(1).
    Taylor, Orley, R., Jr., and David W. Inouye. 1985. Synchrony and periodicy of flowering in Frasera speciosa (Gentianaceae). Ecology. 66(2):521-527.
    Threadgill, Paul F., and Jerry M. Baskin. 1978. Swertia caroliniensis or Frasera caroliniensis?. Castanea. Southern Appalachian Botanical Society.
    Threadgill, Paul F., Jerry M. Baskin, and Carol C. Baskin. 1981. The Ecological Life Cycle of Frasera caroliniensis, a Long-lived Monocarpic Perennial. American Midland Naturalist. 105(2):277-289.
    Tiehm, Arnold. 1985. Fanny Searls (1851-1939). Brittonia. 37(1):36-40.
    Tissue, David T., and Park S. Nobel. 1990. Carbon Relations of Flowering in a Semelparous Clonal Desert Perennial. Ecology. 71(1):273-281.
    von Hagen, Bernhard, and Joachim W. Kadereit. 2002. Phylogeny and Flower Evolution of the Swertiinae (Gentianaceae-Gentianeae): Homoplasy and the Principle of Variable Proportions. Systematic Botany. 27(3):548-572.
    Walter, Thomas. 1788. Flora Caroliniana. London: 1788. Full title: Flora Caroliniana, secundum Systema vegetabilium Linnæi digesta, characteres essentiales naturalesve et differentias veras exhibens; cum emendationibus numerosis, descriptionum antea evulgatarum adumbrationes stirpium plus mille continens, necnon generibus novis non paucis, speciebus plurimis novisq. ornata.
    Watson, Sereno. 1871. Volume 5, Botany. pp. in King, Clarence. Report of the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel. Professional Papers of the Engineer Department, U. S. Army. 18. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1871.
    Welsh, Stanley L., et al. 1987. A Utah Flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs. 9. {TAS}
    Wilson, E. D., and R. T. Moore. 1959. Geologic Map of Mohave County, Arizona. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines, 1959.
    Xue, Chun-Ying, Ting-Nong Ho, De-Zhu Li. 2007. Embryology of Swertia (Gentianaceae) relative to taxonomy. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 155(3):383-400.
    Young, Truman P., and Carol K. Augspurger. 1991. Ecology and evolution of long-lived semelparous plants. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 6(9):285-289.
    Yuan, Yong-Ming, Sébastien Wohlhauser, Michael Möller, Philippe Chassot, Guilhem Mansion, Jason Grant, Philippe Küpfer, and Jens Klackenberg. 2003. Monophyly and relationships of the tribe Exaceae (Gentianaceae) inferred from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 28(3):500-517. {TAS}

Appendix A -- Field Data

For a listing of field data, click here.

Communications Received.

  Fri, 15 Sep 1995 23:10:50 -0400. Frasera albomarginata is also found in the New York Mountains of the East Mojave Desert Preserve and has appeared on a plant list for Clark Mtn even though I've not seen it there. Mary DeDecker reports it appearing in the Last Chance Mtns and Dry Mtn in the northern Mojave desert. It seems to be a limestone endemic but I wouldn't think it to be a relic - it's too widespread. Jim Pittman, jmpii@aol.com
  [Previous Page]

Go to page: [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G]

If you have a question or a comment you may write to me at: tas4@schweich.com I sometimes post interesting questions in my FAQ, but I never disclose your full name or address.  

[Home Page]

Date and time this article was prepared: 3/28/2017 9:03:51 PM