Eastern Mojave Vegetation Grand Loop, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  
 

Tom Schweich  

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Topics in this Article:
Literature Cited
 Yellowstone Loop

Other articles: North Entrance Road Mammoth Hot Springs  

Mammoth Hot Springs

Junction: North Entrance Road
 

Tower-Roosevelt Junction

Junction: Northeast Entrance Road

Other articles: Norris Canyon Road at Cyn Village  

Canyon Village

Junction:
  • Norris Canyon Road
  • North Rim Drive

Other articles: Artist Point Drive at Grand Loop  

Junction: Artist Point Drive

Other articles: Field Notes 16 Aug 2011

Locations: Sulphur Caldron.
Full Size ImageInterpretive sign at Sulphur Caldron  

 
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Sulphur Caldron

Literature Cited:
- Evans, William C., Deborah Bergfeld, John P. McGeehin, John C. King, and Henry Heasler, 2010.

Other articles: Field Notes 16 Aug 2011

Locations: Mud Volcano.  

Mud Volcano

The Washburn Expedition and the Hayden Survey discovered Mud Volcano during the early 1870s. Both groups heard the sound "resembling the reports of distant artillery" for several miles before arriving at Mud Volcano. Mud Volcano at that time exploded with mud from its hillside alcove. Since then Mud Volcano has quieted but still remains a bubbling, seething spring.

Mud Volcano Area, also known for Black Dragon's Caldron, Sour Lake, Mud Caldron, Dragon's Mouth Spring, and Sulfur Caldron, is very acidic. Iron sulfide is responsible for the dark-gray, blacker brown-colored water, while hydrogen sulfide produces the "rotten egg" smell common to the Mud Volcano area.

Evans, et al. (2010) analysis of individual growth rings in a tree core from the Mud Volcano thermal area within the caldera links a sharp ~25% drop in 14C to a local seismic swarm in 1978. The implied fivefold increase in CO2 emissions clearly associates swarm seismicity with upflow of magma-derived fluid and shows that pulses of magmatic CO2 can rapidly traverse the 5-km thick brittle zone, even through Yellowstone’s enormous hydrothermal reservoir. The 1978 event predates annual deformation surveys, but recognized connections between subsequent seismic swarms and changes in deformation suggest that CO2 might drive both processes.

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Orientation sign at Mud Volcano.
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Churning Cauldron at Mud Volcano
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Buffalo rest at Mud Volcano
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Dragon's Mouth Spring

Other articles: East Entrance Road at Fishing Bridge jct  

Fishing Bridge

Junction: East Entrance Road, east to US Highway 20, Cody, Thermopolis, Caspar, …, and Boston.

Other articles: South Entrance Road at West Thumb  

West Thumb

Junction: South Entrance Road, to US Highway 89, south toward Jackson, Wyoming.

Other articles: Field Notes 18 Aug 2011

Locations: Old Faithful Geyser.
Full Size ImageMy photo of Old Faithful  

Old Faithful

Junction: Old Faithful Park Road
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Waiting for the pot to boil over.
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Cheryl's photo of Old Faithful

Literature Cited:
- Hurwitz, Shaul, Laura E. Clor, R. Blaine McCleskey, D. Kirk Nordstrom, Andrew G. Hunt, and William C. Evans, 2016.

Locations: Upper Geyser Basin.  

Upper Geyser Basin

About 3 miles long and 1 1/2 miles wide, Upper Geyser Basin stretches roughly from Sapphire Pool on the north to Old Faithful on the south.

In this basin, Hurwitz, et al. (2016) tested dissolved gasses in a research well and demonstrated that CO2 mainly derived from magme and N2 from air-saturated meteoric water reduce the near-surface saturation temperture and are likely triggers of hydrothermal eruptions.

  Fairy Falls Trailhead. Park here and walk for a hillside view of Grand Prismatic Spring.

Other articles: Field Notes 18 Aug 2011

Locations: Grand Prismatic Spring.
Full Size ImageGround level view of Grand Prismatic Spring  

Midway Geyser Basin and Grand Prismatic Spring.
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Interpretive Sign for Grand Prismatic Spring

Other articles: Field Notes 17 Aug 2011

Locations: Fountain Paint Pot.
Full Size ImageI wonder which pool this was?  

Fountain Paint Pot and vicinity.
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Another one? Pretty sure it was at Artist Paint Pots
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Pretty sure this one was Fountain Geyser

Other articles: West Entrance Road at US Hwy 89  

Madison Junction

Junction: West Entrance Road, to US Highways 20, 191, and 287.

Other articles: Field Notes 17 Aug 2011

Locations: Gibbon Falls.
Full Size ImageGibbon Falls  

Gibbon Falls

Other articles: Field Notes 17 Aug 2011

Locations: Artist Paintpot.
Full Size ImageOverview of Artist Paintpot  

Artist Paintpot

Other articles: Norris Canyon Road at Norris Jct Norris Geyser Basin Access Road at Grand Loop

Locations: Norris Geyser Basin.  

Norris Junction

Junction:
  • Norris Canyon Road
  • Norris Geyser Basin Access Road

Other articles: Field Notes 17 Aug 2011

Locations: Roaring Mountain.
Full Size ImageRoaring Mountain  

Roaring Mountain

Other articles: Field Notes 17 Aug 2011

Locations: Apollinaris Spring. Willow Park.
Full Size ImageField of Gentians at Apollinaris Spring  

Apollinaris Spring, picnic area.
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Gentian at Apollinaris Spring
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View south of Willow Park.
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View north of Willow Park

Other articles: Field Notes 17 Aug 2011

Locations: Mammoth Hot Springs.
Full Size ImageMammoth Hot Springs Terraces  

Mammoth Hot Springs Terraces
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Terrace of Mammoth Hot Springs
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Town of Mammoth, with Montana in the background.

Other articles: North Entrance Road Mammoth Hot Springs  

Mammoth Hot Springs

Junction: North Entrance Road, for US Highway 89, north through Gardiner to the Canadian border.
 

Literature Cited

  A list of all literature cited by this web site can be found in the Bibliography.
  Evans, William C., Deborah Bergfeld, John P. McGeehin, John C. King, and Henry Heasler. 2010. Tree-ring 14C links seismic swarm to CO2 spike at Yellowstone, USA. Geology. 38(12):1075-1078. {TAS-pdf}
  Hurwitz, Shaul, Laura E. Clor, R. Blaine McCleskey, D. Kirk Nordstrom, Andrew G. Hunt, and William C. Evans. 2016. Dissolved gases in hydrothermal (phreatic) and geyser eruptions at Yellowstone National Park, USA. Geology. 44(3):235-238. {TAS-pdf}
If you have a question or a comment you may write to me at: tas4@schweich.com I sometimes post interesting questions in my FAQ, but I never disclose your full name or address.  


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Date and time this article was prepared: 6/17/2017 2:18:41 PM