Eastern Mojave Vegetation Checklist Flora of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Golden and Vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado  
 

Tom Schweich  

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Topics in this Article:
Introduction
Geography
History of Botanic Exploration
Useful Publications
Methods
Results
Floristic Tour of the Golden Area
Literature Cited
Appendices
 Golden, Colorado sits in a valley formed by erosion along the Golden fault, the geotectonic boundary between the North American Cordillera and the Great Plains. Somewhat like Mono Lake, for which I have also prepared a checklist flora, it sits at a boundary, or perhaps ecotone. Things are always more interesting at the boundaries. I started this project when I realized no such list had been prepared for my newly adopted city. I hope you find this checklist flora helpful. Please write to me if you have questions or comments.
 

Introduction

 
  Do you just want to see the checklist? Click: Plant Check List for Golden, Jefferson County, United States.
  It is probably fair to ask why one would prepare a local flora.

There are many sources of information about plant names, their descriptions, and how to identify them. There are numerous published floras for the whole state of Colorado, Colorado east slope and west slope, and the Intermountain Region, not to mention the less-scholarly wildflower books. The various data bases will permit preparation of plant lists for a location, or a range of geographic coordinates, will also giving link to further web sites such as Flora of North America (FNANM) an Encyclopedia of Life. These are all excellent resources. I used them all myself in the preparation of this flora. Data base lists selected by geographic coordinates, and those selected by named localities, were used to provide an initial list of collections. The published floras of larger regions were used to check on names, descriptions, and distribution.

However, the editing process of reviewing collections, and reviewing the absence of collections, provides the benefits that come from preparing a local flora:

  1. Apply local knowledge of geography to collections, their name determinations, and georeferencing.

    … living in a location affords a a better understanding of local geography, and the location of historic reference points ...

    … compare georeferencing to described collecting location ...

  2. Identify questionable collections or determinations. Some examples might be:
    1. A collection of an alpine plant that was made in a non-alpine area. The name applied, the collection location, and the plant's range information should be examined in a attempt to eliminate the apparent confusion.
    2. A collection to which two different names have been applied. For example, E. H. Brunquist's PM-123 is determined as Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng at KHD, and C. ochrocentrum A. Gray at CS. The thing to do is to look at both vouchers and determine which name should be applied, or whether the collection was really a mixed collection.
    3. A little more subtle case occurs when there are many single collections a related taxa. For example, among Oenothera and Gaura (which is sometimes placed in Oenothera), there are nine taxa for which there is only one collection in Golden and vicinity, and the remaining four taxa collected here have only two collections each. It seems unusual that there would be so many single collections of a taxon, and perhaps some of them are misidentified.
  3. Identify gaps in collections. Why hasn't an expected common species found in a certain area?

    For example, I found what I thought was Brickellia californica on North Table Mountain. Yet my data base searches yielded no records of collections. Searching again for all collections of B. californica in Jefferson and surrounding counties showed a single collection of the taxon by Loraine Yeatts on South Table Mountain. However, the collection had been georeferenced incorrectly and would not have appeared in a simple data base query. I have added that collection (and taxon name) to the local flora, and sent a comment to the herbarium about the incorrect coordinates.

  4. Fill in gaps in collections, collect in under-collected areas, or of under-collected plants.

    For example, mapping the locations of collections that can be georeferenced showed that there are few collections from the lower slopes of Lookout Mountain and no collections from the small northern portion of Dakota Ridge near the Rooney Road Sports Complex. These areas may now be targeted for collecting.

  5. Identify plants that may have been extirpated, or may be new arrivals.
  6. Understand the history of botanic or floristic work in a local area. Who collected? Why?

    … accuracy of Marcus E. Jones collection locations …

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Baldwin, Bruce G., Douglas H. Goldman, David J. Keil, Robert Patterson, and Thomas J. Rosatti, 2012.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.
- Harrington, H. D., 1954.
- Snow, Neil, 2009.
- The Plant List, 2013.
- USDA, NRCS, 2014.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Generally, I try to follow nomenclature of the Flora of North America (1993+). When a plant is found in a published volume of FNANM, I will use it.

In the case of unpublished volumes of FNANM, I generally review multiple sources, starting with Ackerfield (2015), and including Snow (2009), the Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/), USDA Plants, the Jepson Manual, Weber and Wittmann (2012), and Harrington (1954), and then pick a modern name in common usage. As additional volumes of FNANM are published, some of the names may have to change.

Once a name is selected, if Ackerfield (2015), Weber and Wittmann (2012), or Harrington (1954), use a different name, then those names are listed as synonyms. Unfortunately, I cannot promise that I have found all such occurrences.

 

Geography

 
 

Golden City Limits

 

Other articles: Illinois Street at Golf Club Kinney Run Trail w. of 6th Salvia Street Tony Grampsas Memorial Sports Complex

Locations: Eagle Ridge. Fossil Trace Golf Club. Golden. Tony Grampsas Memorial Sports Complex.
Full Size ImageCity Limits of Golden, Jefferson County, Colorado  

The boundaries of incorporated Golden are quite irregular. They stretch from I-70 on the south to north of Golden Gate Canyon on the north. The western boundary includes significant portions of the slopes of Lookout Mountain, but do not extend to a ridge line or natural boundary for the purposes of this flora. On the east side, there is a large isolated incorporated area north of 44th and west of MacIntyre, such that there is incorporated Golden on the east and west sides of North Table Mountain, but the mountain itself is not part of the City of Golden. Only a small part of South Table Mountain is within the City of Golden. Pleasant Valley is unincorporated Jeferson County, but there are irregular sections, including a business park south of 6th and east of Indiana.

Within the City of Golden, there are a few parcels that are city-owned, and large enough to be collected. The Fossil Trace Golf Course occupies 216 ac. (87 ha.). City-owned land on the west and south slopes of North Table Mountain comprises 135 ac. (54 ha.). Eagle Ridge is the third largest parcel at 79 ac. (32 ha.) and the Grampsas Sport Complex contains 58 ac. (24 ha.). There is a small hilly parcel near the top of Washington Avenue of 4 ac. (1.6 ha.).

 

Golden sensu latu

 
   
  In describing “Golden” in the broad sense, I have attempted to smooth the boundaries of the incorporated City of Golden, look for natural boundaries, and avoid development encroaching on open space, e.g., north slope of North Table Mountain.
  From the northwest corner of Golden on Pine Ridge Road, the boundary curves across the undeveloped slopes of North Table Mountain to the business park at 44th and Mc Intyre.
  The eastern boundary is along McIntyre Street, jogging west to avoid the Rolling Hills Country Club and former Camp George West. There is an easward extension to include the little piece of Golden at 6th and Indiana.

Locations: Apex Park. Tin Cup Ridge.  

The south boundary is the lower northwest slopes of Green Mountain, i.e., Green Mountain is excluded, Interstate 70, and then a ridge line separating the incorporated area of Golden from Mount Vernon Canyon. Both Tin Cup Ridge and Apex Open Space Park are therefore included within Golden s.l.
  The western boundary begins where the ridge line intersects to western edge of the Morrison quadrangle, and the boundary of Golden sensu latu is the easternmost of either the quadrangle boundary or the ridge line of Lookout Mountain and Mount Zion. From Mount Zion back to Pine Ridge Road, I basically draw a straight line along the various western extents of the irregular Golden city limits.
  The definition of Golden s. l. includes much of the southwest corner of the Golden quadrangle and the northwest corner of the Morrison quadrangle. The Evergreen and Ralston Buttes quadrangles do not include any portion of Golden s. l. as I have defined it.

Locations: Golden.
Full Size ImageWorking definition of “Golden,” Colorado, and Vicinity  

The map at left shows Golden City Limits and my interpretation of “Golden” sensu latu.
   
 

North Table Mountain

 

Other articles: County Road 284 near Poppy

Locations: North Table Mountain.
Full Size ImageNorth Table Mountain to the southwest.  

North and South Table Mountain separate Golden from the metropolitan Denver area to the east. They would be a single mountain except for the canyon that Clear Creek has cut between them. Both mesas are formed of Denver Formation capped by two or three basalt flows. The basalt erupted from what we now call the Ralston dike. This dike can be seen in a quarry west of Colorado Highway 93, about 3 miles north of North Table Mountain. The Denver Formation is composed of sedimentary rocks with clasts of volcanic rocks. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is thought to be in the lower part of the Denver Formation.
  Nearly all of North Table Mountain is in public ownership. The largest part, about 1,873 acres, is owned by Jefferson County, and managed by Jefferson County Open Space as North Table Mountain Park. This park is very popular and heavily used all year around. A smaller portion, about 135 acres on the southwest slopes, is owned by the City of Golden. The radio tower is on a 1 acre privately-owned parcel.
  There are six developed trailheads permitting access to North Table Mountain, and several undeveloped, or social, trailheads.

Other articles: Golden Cliffs Trail at trailhead North Table Loop at N Table Mtn Trlhd CO Hwy 93 at N Table Mtn TH Field Notes 8 Oct 2014

Locations: North Table Mountain.
Full Size ImageNorth Table Mountain Trailhead  

Two of the trailheads are equipped with restrooms. The most popular trailhead is on the west side, just off Colorado Highway 93. It has restrooms, water, and a large parking lot. The other developed trailhead is primarily used by climbers. Accessed from Peery Parkway in Golden, it also has restrooms.
Full Size Image
Golden Cliffs Trailhead

Other articles: County Road 284 at Mesa Spur TH Easley Road near sports complex Field Notes 8 Nov 2015 22 Jul 2016

Locations: North Table Mountain Park.
Full Size ImageTrail access on Ridge Road.  

Three other trailheads developed by Jefferson County Open Space are on W. 58th Avenue, Easley Road, and Ridge Road.
Full Size Image
Trailhead of Mesa Spur Trail.

Other articles: 53rd Drive at bicycle trail Field Notes 13 Aug 2014

Locations: North Table Mountain Park.
Full Size ImageNorth Table Mountain trail at W. 53rd Drive  

There is an access point on W. 53rd Drive, but no parking nearby.

Other articles: Field Notes 20 Jul 2015  

There may be a trailhead from the Table Rock subdivision. In fact, maps of North Table Mountain Park, show this as an Access Point. The problem is: getting back into the subdivision from the park requires passing a "No Trespassing" sign.

Other articles: Peery Drive at trail Field Notes 18 Feb 2016
Full Size ImagePeery Drive trailhead of North Table Mountain Trail.  

The City of Golden has a trailhead into their lands on North Table Mountain on Peery Drive

Other articles: Easley Road at social trail Social Trail at N Table Loop Social Trail at Easley
Full Size ImageSocial trail from Tablerock subdivision into North Table Mountain Park.
Full Size ImageStart of social trail at Easley Road.  

As far as social trails, there are two main trails. One is off Dunraven Circle in Table Rock. The other is at Easley Road and Colorado Highway 58.

Literature Cited:
- White, Sally, and Loraine Yeatts, 1994.  

There have been several Colorado Native Plant Society (CoNPS) field trips on North Table Mountain. Two that are listed on the society's web site are: May 14, 1994, led by Sally White and Loraine Yeatts, and May 23, 1998, led by Paul Kilburn and Jerry Duncan. There is a plant list available from the White and Yeatts field trip.

The author led a CoNPS on June 5, 2016. The plant list from that field trip is kept constantly up to date by this web site. See Plant Check List for North Table Mountain, Jefferson County, United States.

Locations: South Table Mountain.  

South Table Mountain

Seen from a distance, it is clear the upper surface South Table Mountain is a continuation of the down to the south upper surface of North Table Mountain.
  Ownership of South Table Mountain is more mixed than North Table Mountain. The three largest owners are Jefferson County (738 Ac.), State of Colorado (500 ac.), and Bear Creek Development (312 ac.). The City of Golden owns a small 31 acre parcel where the Lubahn Trail is found.

Other articles: Ridge Road near N Easley Wy
Full Size ImageMap of South Table Mountain  

There are three developed trailheads with parking, two access points without parking, and three more informal, or social, access points.
 
  • Lubahn Trail, Belvedere at 18th, Belvedere at 19th.
  • Fossil Trail, on Golden Hills Road.
  • Camp George West Park.
 
  • West Denver West Parkway.
  • Old Quarry Road.
 
  • Lookout View Drive.
  • Rimrock Drive.
  • Quaker Street.

Locations: Lookout Mountain.  

Lookout Mountain

 
  Lookout Mountain is the very eastern edge of the Rocky Mountain Front Range. The Front Range runs north-south between Casper, Wyoming and Pueblo, Colorado and rises nearly 10,000 feet above the Great Plains. Longs Peak, Mount Evans, and Pikes Peak are its most prominent peaks, visible from the Interstate 25 corridor. The highest mountain peak in the Front Range is Grays Peak. Other notable mountains include Torreys Peak and Mount Bierstadt.

Only the eastern-facing slopes of Lookout Mountain are covered by this checklist flora.

Land ownership (1,221 ac.) is primarily Jefferson County Open Space for Windy Saddle Park, Apex Open Space Park, Lookout Mountain Nature Center, and small portion of Mathews-Winters Park. Denver Parks owns a large parcel (69 ac.) on top of Lookout Mountain. Martin Marietta is the largest landowner for their quarry, followed by the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart (Mother Cabrini Shrine).

 

Other Areas

There are other smaller areas wherein plants may be sought scattered throughout Golden s.l.
  The next largest single parcel is the Colorado School of Mines Survey Field. It consists of 2 parcels totaling about 226 acres. At the upper, west side, it abuts Lookout Mountain.
  Deadman Gulch and Eagle Ridge (a small hogback) add up to 87 acres.
  The Tony Grampsas Memorial Sports Complex comprises 58 acres, almost entirely developed.
  The hang glider landing field is 45 acres, property owned by Colorado School of Mines, a lot of us disturbed by use.
  Cressman Gulch and the hogback above it measure out to 39 acres. The lion's share of this area is contributed by the south end of the hogback. There are open mines on the hogback, which are fenced, and not open to access by the public.
  Much of the lower part of Tucker Gulch is still railroad right-of-way, but the portion owned by the City of Golden is 34 acres.
  The litte piece of City of Golden open space at the north end of Washington Avenue, near Cannonball Creek Brewery, measures 4 acres.
 

Nearby Areas Excluded

 
  Any developed areas on the north slope of North Table Mountain are excluded.
  The boundary drawn to swing west of the Rolling Hills Country Club.
  The former Camp George West is excluded in its entirety.

Literature Cited:
- Yeatts, Dick, and Loraine Yeatts, 2009.

Locations: Green Mountain.  

Nearly all of Green Mountain is excluded, except for the lowest northwest slopes.

There are a few lists available for Green Mountain. The most recent is Yeatts & Yeatts (2009).

 

Geology

My broad definition of Golden is included on two USGS 7.5" topographic maps: Golden and Morrison.

Literature Cited:
- Van Horn, Richard, 1957.
- Van Horn, Richard, 1972.
- Van Horn, Richard, 1976.

Locations: Golden.  

Geology of the Golden quadrangle is by Van Horn (1972, 1976).

Literature Cited:
- Scott, G. R., 1972.

Locations: Golden.  

Geology of the Morrison quadrangle is by Scott (1972).

Literature Cited:
- Weimer, Bob, 2001.

Locations: Golden.
Full Size ImageSimplified geologic cross section through Golden and vicinity  

Simplified geologic cross section of Golden and vicinity.
 

History of Botanic Exploration

 
 

The Long Expedition to the Rocky Mountains 1819-1820

Literature Cited:
- Goodman, George J., and Cheryl A. Lawson, 1995.  

Major Stephen H. Long, an army engineer, promoted scientific exploration in the west to President James Monroe and Secretary of War John Calhoun. In 1818, he received authorization to form a scientific group and undertake an expedition. His scientific staff included Edwin James, M.D., a twenty-three year old Vermonter, as botanist.

The expedition set out on June 6, 1820, from Engineer Cantonment on the Missouri River, about 5 miles below Council Bluffs.

  The expedition arrived in the Denver area on July 5th, camping on the South Platte River opposite Cannon Ball Creek (now Clear Creek).

Literature Cited:
- James, Edwin, ed., 1823.

Other articles: Sheridan Blvd at Inspiration Pt Pk Account of the Expedition, Volume 2 5 Jul 2017

Locations: Inspiration Point.  

In the afternoon, James and three others set out for the base of the Rocky Mountains, thinking they were just a few miles away. Eight miles later, they reached the location of present day Inspiration Point and, discouraged that the mountains looked no closer, they turned back to camp. Along the way the party noted a few plants, but did not collect.
  On July 6th, they moved to the mouth of Waterton Canyon, and explored in the Roxborough Park area. The next day James and several others struggles up the north bank of the South Platte, reaching the southeast slopes of Sheep Mountain.

The southeast slopes of Sheep Mountain are most likely locations for many of James' new species. In particular: Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. “Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat” Physocarpus monogynus (Torrey) Coulter “Mountain Ninebark” Acer glabrum Torrey “Rocky Mountain Maple” were most likely collected on Sheep Mountain. James' collection of Cercocarpus montanus Raf. “Alder Leaf Mountain Mahogany” was probably made at the mouth of Waterton Canyon. There are several other collections that may have been made in this area, but the time or location may be unclear, or in the case of Rubus deliciousus the material actually collected is unclear.

Literature Cited:
- James, Edwin, ed., 1823.  

In 1823, the Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains performed in the years 1819, 1820, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, under the command of Major Stephen H. Long, edited by Edwin James was published.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, 1824.  

John Torrey (1824) “Description of some new or rare plants from the Rocky Mountains, collected in July, 1820, by Dr. E. James” describes some new plants from Pikes Peak slopes and summit. None of the plants were collected in Jefferson County, Colorado.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, 1824.  

John Torrey (1824) “Description of some new grasses, collected by Dr. E. James, during the expedition of Major Long to the Rocky Mountains, in 1819-1820” contains no new grasses from Jefferson County, Colorado.

Literature Cited:
- James, Edwin, 1825.  

In 1825, James published a “Catalogue of Plants Collected During a Journey to and from the Rocky Mountains, During the Summer of 1820.” However, this account does not include any previously undescribed plants.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1827.  

Finally, in 1827, Torrey's “Some account of a Collection of Plants made during a journey to and from the Rocky Mountains in the summer of 1820, by Edwin P. James, M. D. Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army.” some of the new taxa from Jefferson County. These collections were made on the southeast slopes of Sheep Mountain, above Waterton Canyon. Some of the new taxa were Acer glabrum Torr. “Rocky Mountain Maple,” Spiraea monogyna Torr. (=Physocarpus monogynus (Torr.) J. M. Coult.) “Mountain Nine-bark,” and Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. “Sulphur-flower Buckwheat” Torrey's caution got the best of him with his acceptance of Cercocarpus fothergilloides Kunth for what later became C. montanus Raf. While none of these plants were collected in Golden by the Long Expedition, there are all quite common here.

The collections identified by Torrey Sium latifolium L. Roem. and Schult. vi. p. 331. Tor. fl. i. p. 311. Base of the Rocky Mountains. is listed in Goodman and Lawson (____) as Sium suave Walter Water Parsnip. Ackerfield (2015) says this taxon does not occur in Jefferson County, and SEINet supports this contention, save for one 1977 collection at a Main Reservoir near Mississipi and Kipling in Lakewood.

Torrey lists Stipa barbata Michx. fl. i. p. 53. as being found on the sources of the Platte and Canadian. He then goes on to observe "… grows with Cenchrus echinatus, and like that plant is very troublesome ; the bearded awns adhering to and penetrating the dress." Goodman and Lawson (1995, p. 210) state that both Stipa barbata and S. juncea, as used by James, are synonyms for Hesperostipa comata (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth.

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1832.

Other articles: Atlantic Journal 107120  

Rafinesque was pretty unhappy with Torrey being " ...so very cautious that he will not admit any improvement except after long delays and previous precedents …" which left him feeling "… compelled to rectify this omission by forming many new genera and species out of [Torrey's] plants, for my florula Oregonensis." Justifying his action by stating " …hesitation in science is often as injurous as haste. It is even better to have two names for an object than no name at all," Rafinesque published Cercocarpus montanus Raf. in “Twenty new genera of plants from the Oregon Mountains, &c.”

Literature Cited:
- Beaman, John H., 1957.
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.

Locations: Mount Vernon Canyon.  

Two Townsendias are commonly collected in the Golden area: T. grandiflora and T. hookeri. Both were first collected in 1834 by Thomas Nuttall during his journey with the Wyeth expedition from St. Louis, Missouri, to Fort Vancouver, Oregon. Nuttall kept no journal during this trip, so his localities are always a bit of a mystery. Some location data can be derived from his published account and the label data on his specimens. “Plains of the Platte” is probably the most accurate location description for T. grandiflora, whereas "an alpine chain toward the sources of the Platte" is the most descriptive location for T. hookeri. Nuttall's determination of his collection was T. sericea Hook. T. sericea is an illegitimate name and a synonym of T. exscapa (Richardson) Porter. Beaman (1957) proposed T. hookeri Beaman as a segregate from T. exscapa, using a collection by Clokey in Mt. Vernon Canyon as his type. Besides its generally smaller size, a distinguishing character of T. hookeri Beaman is its little tuft of twisted cilia at the apex of the phyllaries (Beaman, 1957, Graustein, 1967).
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1071, Townsendia, probably T. hookeri
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1247, Townsendia grandiflora
 

The Last 50 Years

Literature Cited:
- Brunquist, E. H., 1966.  

E. H. Brunquist (1966) prepared a local checklist flora of the Heritage Square area as part of the report on Excavations at Magic Mountain (Irwin-Williams and Irwin, 1966).

Literature Cited:
- Varnell, Jeanne, 1972.

Locations: South Table Mountain.  

The Jefferson Sentinel in July, 1972 ran a long article about South Table Mountain describing its history and the need to save it as park land.

Literature Cited:
- Brown, Georgina, 1976.

Locations: South Table Mountain.  

Georgina Brown's Book, The Shining Mountains, describes a grisly murder that took place on South Table Mountain.

Literature Cited:
- Zeise, Larry Steven, 1976.

Locations: North Table Mountain.  

The Colorado Chapter of the Nature Conservancy funded an ecological survey of North Table Mountain by Larry S. Zeise (1976) under the supervision of John W. Marr of the University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

Literature Cited:
- Kilburn, Paul D., and Sally L. White, 1992.

Locations: North Table Mountain.  

Paul Kilburn and Sally White (1992) published a short volume on the history and natural features of North Table Mountain.

Literature Cited:
- Pague, Christopher A., Renee Rondeau, and Mark Duff, 1993.

Locations: North Table Mountain.  

North Table Mountain was described in a report by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program as posessing a Biodiversity rank of B4 (Pague, et al., 1993).

Locations: North Table Mountain. South Table Mountain.
Full Size ImagePoster advertising presentation about South Table Mountain  

In 2001, a presentation by Dr. Robert Raynolds, Loraine Yeatts, and Dr. Kirk Johnson, was made at the American Mountaineering Center describing why the Table Mountains were important to preserve.

Literature Cited:
- Plantae Consulting Services, 2002.

Locations: South Table Mountain.  

Maureen O'Shea-Stone published a vegetation survey report of the portion of South Table Mountain owned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Plantae Consulting Services, 2002).

Literature Cited:
- Sovell, John, Pam Smith, Denise Culver, Susan Panjabi and Joe Stevens, 2012.

Locations: North Table Mountain.  

The Colorado Natural Heritage Program prepared a survey of critical biological resources for Jefferson County (Sovell, et al., 2012), in which North Table Mountain was upgraded to Biodiversity Rank B3.
  Understanding urban flora …

Literature Cited:
- Clemants, Steven E., and Gerry Moore, 2003.  

 
 

Useful Publications

 

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1954.  

Harrington's Manual of the Plants of Colorado (1954) … occasionally helpful because it has more extensive descriptions of the taxa.

Literature Cited:
- Shaw, Robert B., 2008.  

Shaw's (2008) Grasses of Colorado …

Literature Cited:
- Snow, Neil, 2009.  

Neil Snow's checklist of vascular plants of the southern Rocky Mountain region …

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber and Witmann's Colorado Flora: Eastern Slope (2012, 4th edition) …

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield's (2015) Flora of Colorado
 

Methods

 
 

Herbarium Search

 
 

Collecting

 
 

Results

 
 

Collections Found

 

Full Size ImageLocations of georeferenced collections in Golden, before I started collecting.
Full Size ImageLocations of georeferenced collections in Golden, after 2016 collecting season  
A map of known georeferenced plant collections made in or near Golden is shown at left.
 

Major Collectors in Golden and Vicinity

  Collections found by collector, as of October 1, 2016:
CollectorNumber of Collections
Loraine Yeatts330
Tom Schweich291
E. H. Brunquist120
Janet L. Wingate107
Anonymous or Unknown58
Hansford T. Schacklette52
Ellsworth Bethel48
J. H. Ehlers45
Stanley Smookler42
Mary Edwards37
Marcus E. Jones30
Berta Anderson19
Ira W. Clokey18
W. Huestis17
Jim Ratzloff16
Peter G. Root14
Will C. Ferril13
Mark Duff13
R. J. Rondeau12
Earl L. Johnston10
H. D. Harrington10
 

Loraine Yeatts

 

Janet L. Wingate

 

E. H. Brunquist

Ernest Herman Brunquist (1888 - 1978)
m. Esther Mercer, March 22, 1923
1972, botanist for Denver Museum of Natural History.

Literature Cited:
- Jones, Marcus E., n.d..  

Marcus E. Jones only visits to the Golden area were in 1878. He writes in his notes
... On the 17th. got 255 and others in the foothills near Golden and at Golden. On the 20th, got 268, 273 and others at Golden, and 226-238, 246, 256-267, 270-272, 274-275 in Clear Creek Canyon going toward Idaho Springs. … August 1st. got 528-532 at Idaho Springs, 522-523 at Golden. on the 2nd. 524-527 on the road to Denver. …
 

Collections Made

 
 

Checklist Flora

 
  Taxa represented by single collections.
  Taxa without infra-specific determinations.
 

Vegetation Types

 
 

Biodiversity

 

Literature Cited:
- Colwell, Robert K., 2008.
- Savard, Jean-Pierre L., Philippe Clergeau, and Gwenaelle Mennechez, 2000.  

What is biodiversity?
 

Rare and Unusual Plants

 
 

Taxonomic Issues

 
  Lumping vs. splitting Mentzelia.

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., Gary E. Moulton and Alfred E. Schuyler, 1999.  

Ericameria nauseosa
  Cyclachaena and Iva
 

Puzzles

 
 

Floristic Tour of the Golden Area

 
 

Literature Cited

  A list of all literature cited by this web site can be found in the Bibliography.
  Ackerfield, Jennifer. 2015. Flora of Colorado. Fort Worth, TX 76107-3400: Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 2015.
  Baldwin, Bruce G., Douglas H. Goldman, David J. Keil, Robert Patterson, and Thomas J. Rosatti. 2012. The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, January 2012. {TAS}
  Beaman, John H. 1957. The Systematics and Evolution of Townsendia (Compositae). Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University. No. . Cambridge, MA: Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, 1957. {TAS-pdf}
  Bell, Charles D. 2010. Towards a Species Level Phylogeny of Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae), Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA. Systematic Botany. 35(2).
  Brown, Georgina. 1976. The Shining Mountains. Leadville, CO: Georgina Brown, 1976. {TAS}
  Brunquist, E. H. 1966. Flora. pp. 6-11 in Irwin-Williams, Cynthia, and Henry J. Irwin, 1966. Excavations at Magic Mountain: A Diachronic Study of Plains-Southwest Relations. Denver Museum of Natural History, Proceedings No. 12. Denver, Colorado: Denver Museum of Natural History, October 20, 1966. {TAS-pdf}
  Clemants, Steven E., and Gerry Moore. 2003. Patterns of Species Diversity in Eight Northeastern United States Cities. Urban Habitats. 1(1). {TAS-pdf}
  Colbry, Vera Lyola. 1957. Diagnostic characteristics of the fruits and florets of economic species of North American Sporobolus. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. 34(1). Washington, D. C.: United States National Museum, 1957. {TAS-pdf} Taxa found in Golden: Sporobolus airoides, S. compositus, and S. cryptandrus. There are no Sporobolus collections from the Mono Lake basin.
  Colorado Natural Heritage Program. 2005. Rocky Mountain Lower Montane - Foothill Shrubland. Ecological System Descriptions and Viability Guidelines for Colorado. Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, 2005. {TAS-pdf} (http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/download/projects/eco_systems/eco_systems.asp, accessed 27 October 2014)
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  Hufford, Larry, Michelle M. McMahon, Anna M. Sherwood, Gail Reeves, and Mark W, Chase. 2003. The major clades of Loasaceae: phylogenetic analysis using the plastid matK and trnL-trnF regions. American Journal of Botany. 90(8):1215-1228. {TAS-pdf}
  James, Edwin, ed. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains performed in the years 1819, 1820, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. II. Volume 1: (http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124314). Volume 2: (https://books.google.com/books?printsec=frontcover&pg=PA256&id=ys5jAAAAMAAJ#v=onepage&q&f=false)
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  Plantae Consulting Services. 2002. Vegetation Survey Report. National Revewable Energy Laboratory, South Table Mountain Site. June 29, 2002.
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  Sovell, John, Pam Smith, Denise Culver, Susan Panjabi and Joe Stevens. 2012. Survey of Critical Biological Resources, Jefferson County, Colorado, 2010-2011. Prepared for: Jefferson County Board of County Commissioners. Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Warner College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, 2012. {TAS-pdf}
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  Torrey, John G. 1827. Some account of a Collection of Plants made during a journey to and from the Rocky Mountains in the summer of 1820, by Edwin P. James, M. D. Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army. Read December 11, 1826.. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 2: 241.
  USDA, NRCS. 2014. The Plants Database. Greensboro, NC 27401-4901: National Plant Data Team. (http://plants.usda.gov, accessed many dates in 2014)
  Van Horn, Richard. 1957. Bedrock geology of the Golden quadrangle, Colorado. Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-103. 1957. {TAS-pdf} Geotiff aavailable at: http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/ngm-bin/pdp/download.pl?q=15570_548_5, accessed 26 August 2014.
  Van Horn, Richard. 1972. Surficial and bedrock geologic map of the Golden Quadrangle, Jefferson County, Colorado. USGS IMAP: 761-A. 1972. {TAS-pdf} http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/ngm-bin/pdp/download.pl?q=7281_9511_5, accessed 27 August 2014
  Van Horn, Richard. 1976. Geology of the Golden Quadrangle, Colorado. USGS Professional Paper: 872. 1976. {TAS-pdf} http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0872/report.pdf, accessed 27 August 2014.
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  Weimer, Bob. 2001. Mines Geology Trail. CSM Geology Museum Special Publication No. 1. Golden, Colorado: Colorado School of Mines, Geology Museum, 2001. {TAS-pdf} (http://inside.mines.edu/UserFiles/File/Geology/geoTrail1.pdf, accessed 4 Nov 2014.)
  White, Sally, and Loraine Yeatts. 1994. Plants of North Table Mountain 1. {TAS-pdf} (http://www.conps.org/pdf/Plant_Lists/NTableMtByFam.pdf, accessed 15 August 2014) This list was used for two Colorado Native Plant Society field trips: 14 May 1994, led by Sally White and Loraine Yeatts, and 23 May 1998, led by Paul Kilburn and Jerry Duncan.
  Yeatts, Dick, and Loraine Yeatts. 2009. Plants of Green Mt. [Jefferson Co(s), Colorado]. Observed on CONPS fieldtrip, 05/25/2009. {TAS-pdf} (http://www.conps.org/pdf/Plant_Lists/GreenMt3ByFam.pdf, Accessed 26 August 2014.)
  Zeise, Larry Steven. 1976. An ecological survey of North Table Mountain near Golden, Colorado. pp. in Supervised and Edited by John W. Marr, Ecologist, Professor of Biology. A study conducted for the Technical Advisory Committee of the Colorado Chapter of the Nature Conservancy. Boulder, Colorado: Laboratory of Mountain Ecology for Man, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Colorado, November, 1976. {TAS-pdf}
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Date and time this article was prepared: 3/28/2017 8:56:35 PM