Eastern Mojave Vegetation Field Notes (Continued)  
 

Tom Schweich  

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Contents
Literature Cited
 When I first read the field notes of Annie Alexander and Louise Kellogg, I was fascinated by the descriptions they wrote about the places they went and the plants and animals they found there. By publishing my field notes on the Internet I hope to follow a little bit in their tradition.

 

 

   

2017

 

 

 

Locations: South Table Mountain.
Full Size ImageQuarry on South Table Mountain
Full Size ImageView from north rim of South Table Mountain.  

Tuesday, February 7th

Hiked South Table Mountain, from Quaker Street to North Rim.
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Rounded cobbles on top of South Table Mountain
 

 

 

Other articles: Golden Cliffs Trail at rim

Locations: North Table Mountain.
Full Size ImageFront Range Climbing Stewards trailer at top of Golden Cliffs Trail  

Friday, February 10th

North Table Mountain, Golden Cliffs Trail over the top and back by way of the Climbing Access Trail.  

Other articles: Golden Cliffs Trail along trail Field Notes Coll. No. 1319, 4 May 2016
Full Size ImageRibes aureum in winter.
Full Size ImageTwigs of Ribes aureum in winter.  

1319  The same Ribes aureum from which I made Coll. No. 1319.

Other articles: Golden Cliffs Trail along trail
Full Size ImageLocation where Munroa squarrosa was found
Full Size ImageMunroa squarrosa “False Buffalo Grass”  

Looked for Munroa squarrosa.
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Location where Munroa squarrosa was found
 

Full Size ImageLittle unknown grass.
Full Size ImageAnother little unknown grass.  
Two other little grasses found while looking for Munroa squarrosa.

 

 

Other articles: Arapahoe Street near 2nd near 4th Ford Street at bend in road Social Trail (N. Ford to Jackson) at Ford near trl jct at trl jct Social Trail (Up. Wash. Ave. OS) near trl jct

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
Full Size ImageAbandoned vehicle on Arapahoe Street.  

Monday, February 27th

Walk through Mesa Meadows and down through social trail.
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"For Sale" van stored on street for months.
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North end of social trail off N. Ford Street.
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Social trail.
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Social trail west across open space.
This was the first time I walked through the City of Golden open space between Washington Avenue and North Ford Street.

 

 

Other articles: Golden Cliffs Trail along trail Social Trail near stream at spring
Full Size ImageSouth Table Mountain Fire on north slope of South Table Mountain
Full Size ImageEphemeral stream crosses trail  

Friday, March 10th

Hiked the City of Golden North Table Mountain Trail from the Peery Parkway trailhead to the Golden Cliffs Trailhead and a little beyond.
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Ephemeral stream crosses trail
 

 

 

Other articles: Social Trail at spring

Locations: North Table Mountain.
Full Size ImageDeer above spring, southwest slopes of North Table Mountain.  

Thursday, March 16th

North Table Mountain and Park.
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Spring improvements, plastic pipe south down the hill.
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Spring improvements (steel drum set in watercourse).
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Downhill view from the spring.
From the stream crossing on the City of Golden trail, climbed up the slope to find the spring. It is at the top of the second run, and at the base of a thicket. The spring has been “improved” in two locations. One has a 1 inch black plastic pipe coming out ot a small thicket. Presumably there was a small spring box that is now overgrown. The other improvement is a small metal drum that has been cut open and laid sideways in the watercourse. This probably ensured a small pool of water for wildlife to drink. The drum is now filled with rocks. Above the spring is the head scarp of a large landslide on which the surface is level to sloped back toward the mountain.

From the head scarp I went north to the North Table Mountain Trail, then up the social trail to the top of the mesa. I checked the spoils pile for Astragalus, then returned by way of the Golden Cliffs Trail, stopping to verify the location of Munroa squarrosa.

 

 

Other articles: Rooney Road Sports Complex Road at end Tin Cup Ridge (social trail) at start of trail at monument in quarry in pines at saddle
Full Size ImageA gate and hiker pass-thru has been added to the fence.
Full Size ImageSurvey monument just off-trail.  

Monday, March 20th

Tin Cup Ridge. Part way then down the side of the hill.
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Ripple marks on the bottom of sandstone strata.
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Ponderosa pine along trail which has been partially felled by a hatchet or axe.
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Sink hole above a closed mine.
 

Other articles: Tin Cup Ridge (social trail) at Coll. 1567  

1567  Field identification: Claytonia rosea. Just a few in bloom, open east-facing slope, in grasses and forbs, below mountain mahogany growing along the ridge line.

Claytonia rosea Rydb. Rocky Mountain Springbeauty.

Tin Cup Ridge, Jefferson County, Colorado. Northern part of ridge, both sides of social trail, open east-facing slope in grasses and forbs, below mountain mahogany lining the top of the ridge, 4.6 km south southeast of the GNIS location of Golden. 39.7157°N, 105.2066°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 1900 m.

 

 

Other articles: Arapahoe Street near 2nd Cheyenne Street in the alley
Full Size ImageMyrtle Spurge on Arapahoe Street.
Full Size ImageMyrtle spurge in the alley.  

Wednesday, March 22nd

Myrtle spurge around a neighborhood loop.  

 

 

Other articles: Golden Checklist Flora up. wash. Social Trail (Up. Wash. Ave. OS) at top Washington Avenue near Rubey

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
Full Size ImageView south toward N. Rubey Drive.  

Saturday March 25th

Walked up various alleys to the small open space above Washington Avenue.
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View west to North Table Mountain.
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View south to Castle Rock.
 

 

   

Monday, March 27th

City of Golden open space above upper Washington Avenue.  

Other articles: Social Trail (N. Ford to Jackson) n. e. corner Social Trail (Up. Wash. Ave. OS) behind Cannonball at tree at path at tree at Leu. mon.

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
Full Size ImageEast end of open space.  

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Leucocrinum montanum on south-facing slope.
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Last year's fruit on Prunus virginiana
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Prunus virginiana
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Small bench under tree.
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Social trail between housing development and Cannonball Brewery.
 

 

 

Other articles: Social Trail (Parfet Estates Drive to Landing Zone) 90000  

Monday, April 3rd

Parfet Estates Drive through Landing Zone.  

Other articles: Chimney Gulch Trail at curve Parfet Estates Drive at CoG parcel Social Trail (Parfet Estates Drive to Landing Zone) 80000
Full Size ImageAccess to City of Golden parcel on Parfet Estates Drive
Full Size ImageEuphorbiaceae myrsinites “Myrtle Spurge”  

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North Golden from outcrop on Lookout Mountain.
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View from outcrop.
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Chimney Gulch Trail
 

Other articles: Social Trail (Parfet Estates Drive to Landing Zone) along trail
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1568, Carex inops var. heliophila
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1568, Carex inops var. heliophila  

1568 
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1568, Carex inops var. heliophylla
Field identification: Carex inops var. heliophila.

Carex inops L.H. Bailey ssp. heliophila (Mack.) Crins. Sun Sedge.

Landing Zone, Jefferson County, Colorado. Lowest slopes of Mount Zion, below Windy Saddle Park, 1.25 km southwest of the GNIS location of Golden. 39.7489°N, 105.233°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 1792 m. Grassy east-facing slope, most other plants still dormant or just beginning to grow.

 

   

Thursday, April 6th

 

Other articles: CO Hwy 93 city limits

Locations: Cressmans Gulch (lower).
Full Size ImageColorado Highway 93 and North Table Mountain.  

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Trench on east side of hogback.
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Golden from hogback north of town.
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North Table Mountain from an unnamed hogback to the west.
 

 

   

April 8th – “Project Flambeau”

 

Literature Cited:
- Countryman, Clive M., 1969.
- Fox, Douglas, 2017.
- Palmer, Thomas Y., 1969.

Other articles: Mono Lake Basin Flora at Deep Cañon  

“In the wrinkled, sage-covered mountains of Nevada near the California border, 30 miles east of Mono Lake, there is a meadow that seems to lie in shadow even on sunny days. Spread across it are hundreds of dark patches, where the soil is mixed with charcoal. These spots lay row upon row, like the ghostly foundations of a dead city. In a sense, that is exactly what they are.

“In 1967, workers with the Forest Service and the Department of Defense stacked 342 piles of juniper and piñon logs in this place — 20 tons of wood per pile, spaced 25 feet apart. Then, at 8 a.m. on Sept. 29, they set fire to them.

“Project Flambeau comprised some two-dozen experiments like this one, meant to simulate an American suburb under nuclear attack … (Fox, 2017)”

 

   

Tuesday, April 11th

Golden, CO to Green River, UT.  

Other articles: CO-133 n of Bears Gl at Bears Gl s of Bears Gl

Locations: Bears Gulch.
Full Size ImageNorth on Colorado State Highway 133.  

Along Colorado State Highway 133 near Bears Gulch.
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Waterfall at Bears Gulch
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South on Colorado State Highway 133
 

Other articles: Interstate 70 132610

Locations: Green River.
Full Size ImageSunset across the Green River  

Dinner in Green River.  

 

   

Wednesday, April 12th

 

Other articles: Interstate 70 at The Squeeze

Locations: San Rafael Swell. Spotted Wolf Canyon. The Squeeze.
Full Size ImageEntrance to Spotted Wolf Canyon on Interstate 70  

Crossing the San Rafael Swell.
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Eastern edge of San Rafael Swell.
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Eastern edge of San Rafael Swell.
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Allium seen at The Squeeze Rest Stop.
 

Other articles: Interstate 70 at Black Dragon Cyn

Locations: Black Dragon Wash.
Full Size ImageBlack Dragon Canyon on east slope of San Rafael Swell.  

Black Dragon Canyon Overlook for westbound travelers.

Other articles: Interstate 70 at Eagle Cyn O'look

Locations: Eagle Canyon.
Full Size ImageEagle Canyon from the associated overlook.  

Eagle Canyon Overlook.

Locations: Miller Canyon.
Full Size ImageEmery, Utah, from mesa to the southeast.
Full Size ImageCell phone tower on mesa near Miller Canyon.  

Looking for Frasera albomarginata on the mesa above Miller Canyon.

 

Other articles: Interstate 70 Fremont Indian State Park and Museum

Locations: Fremont Indian State Park.
Full Size ImageView of Five Finger Ridge across US I-70.  

Fremont Indian State Park and Museum

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Petroglyph panel at Fremont Indian State Park.
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Petroglyph panel at Fremont Indian State Park.
 

 

   

Thursday, April 13th

Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area  

Other articles: Nevada State Route 159 at o'look

Locations: Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area. Red Rock Dedication Site.
Full Size ImageView from Red Rock Overlook  

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View from Red Rock Overlook
Red Rock Overlook (Dedication Site).

Other articles: Scenic Loop Drive at visitor ctr

Locations: Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area.
Full Size ImageView from Visitor Center  

Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center.

Other articles: Scenic Loop Drive at o'look

Locations: Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area.
Full Size ImageView from High Point Overlook.  

High Point Overlook.

 

Other articles: Rocky Gap Road at Willow Sprs

Locations: Willow Spring.
Full Size ImageHikers above Willow Springs Picnic Area.  

Willow Springs Picnic Area

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Cercis, probably C. occidentalis at Willow Spring.
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Cercis, probably C. occidentalis at Willow Spring.
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Fossiliferous limestone in the wash.
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Petroglyphs at Willow Spring.
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Willow Spring Picnic Area
 

 

   

Sunday, April 16th

 

Other articles: California Highway 127 at Silver Lake spillway

Locations: Avawatz Mountains. Silver Lake.
Full Size ImageLower spillway from Silver Lake, with Avawatz Mountains in distance.  

Field Trip Stop 2017-1-1. Outlet of Lake Mojave and tectonics of the Silurian Valley and Avawatz Mountains.
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Dave Miller leads field discussion of the outlet of Lake Mojave and the tectonics of the Silurian Valley and Avawatz Mountains.
 

Other articles: 4WD Road at pkg
Full Size ImageField Trip Stop 2017-1-2, Folds and restraining and releasing stepovers in the Soda-Avawatz fault zone.
Full Size ImageImbricated alluvial fan gravels.  

Field Trip Stop 2017-1-2, Folds and restraining and releasing stepovers in the Soda-Avawatz fault zone.
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Fan surfaces differentially affected by a minor fault.
 

Other articles: Basin Road at tracks

Locations: Basin.
Full Size ImageCrossing the Union Pacific tracks at Basin.  

Our route was quite circuitous since the railroad crossing at Crucero is now closed.  

Other articles: Union Pacific Maintenance Road near Crucero Tonopah & Tidewater Crucero

Locations: Crucero.
Full Size ImageUnion Pacific tracks at Crucero, looking toward Kelso.  

Missed the old telegraph road, stopped here, changed flat tires.
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East end of Crucero on the Union Pacific tracks.
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Milling around, wondering what's next?
 

 

Other articles: Crucero Road 34000 at megaphone Tonopah & Tidewater Mesquite

Locations: Mesquite Spring.
Full Size ImageField Trip Stop 2017-1-4, Mesquite Spring.  

Field Trip Stop 2017-1-4, Mesquite Spring.

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Field Trip Stop 2017-1-4, Mesquite Spring.
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The Mojave Megaphone
 

 

Other articles: Crucero Road 66000 Tonopah & Tidewater on Broadwell Lake

Locations: Broadwell Lake.
Full Size ImageField Trip Stop 2017-1-5.  

Field Trip Stop 2017-1-5. Broadwell Lake fissures and views of Broadwell Mesa and Cady Faults.

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Vegetation in Broadwell Lake fissures.
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Field Trip Stop 2017-1-5.
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Tonopah & Tidewater roadbed north on Broadwell Lake
 

 

   

Monday, April 17th

2017 Desert Symposium, Field Trip Day 2.

 

Other articles: Zzyzx Road on shore of Soda Lake

Locations: Soda Lake.
Full Size ImageAnemopsis californica “Yerba Mansa” beside Zzyzx Road.  

Field Trip Stop 2017-2-1. Spring history along Soda Lake.

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Field Trip Stop 2017-2-1
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Driving on Soda Lake not recommended.
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Field Trip Stop 2017-2-1
 

 

Other articles: Power Line Road at Stop 2017-2-2

Locations: Cave Mountain. Mojave Valley.
Full Size ImageHesperocallis undulata “Desert Ajo Lily”  

Field Trip Stop 2017-2-2. Cave Mountain Fault.

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Hesperocallis undulata “Desert Ajo Lily”
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Field Trip Stop 2017-2-2. Cave Mountain Fault.
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Brassica tournefortii “Sahara Mustard”
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Cave Mountain as seen from Field Trip Stop 2017-2-2.
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View toward Mojave Valley from Field Trip Stop 2017-2-2.
 

 

Other articles: Dunn Road at Stop 2017-2-3
Full Size ImageField Trip Stop 2017-2-3. Splay of the Cave Mountain fault.  

Field Trip Stop 2017-2-3. Splay of the Cave Mountain fault.

 

Other articles: Dunn Road at dacite dome
Full Size ImageDacite dome of unknown age.  

Small part of a dacite dome of unknown age. It may be part of a larger dome to the east that lies on metamorphic rocks (Walker et al., 1990).  

Other articles: BLM 8344 at Stop 2017-2-5 near Dunn Road Dunn Road at BLM 8344
Full Size ImageRoute to Field Trip Stop 2017-2-5.
Full Size ImageField Trip Stop 2017-2-5. Pliocene sediment derived from sources to the west.  

Field Trip Stop 2017-2-5. Pliocene sediment derived from sources to the west.
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Field Trip Stop 2017-2-5. Pliocene sediment derived from sources to the west.
 

 

Other articles: Power Line Road #2 (Middle) at Stop 2017-2-7
Full Size ImageField Trip Stop 2017-2-7. Goldstone gravel and overview of Miocene strata of Alvord Mountain.
Full Size ImageLooking southeast across Mojave Valley to the Cady Mountains.  

Desert Symposium Field Trip Stop 2017-2-7.

Goldstone gravel and overview of Miocene strata of Alvord Mountain.
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Southwest view along the power lines.
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Field Trip Stop 2017-2-7. Goldstone gravel and overview of Miocene strata of Alvord Mountain.
 

Other articles: Daggett-Yermo Road at Mojave Rd
Full Size ImageWagon at Daggett Historical Museum.  

Daggett Historical Museum.  

 

   

Tuesday, April 18th

Shadow Valley to Mesquite Mountains.  

Other articles: Kingston Wash Road 25400
Full Size ImageThe gate at the wilderness boundary.
Full Size ImageJoshua tree and creosote bush in Shadow Valley.  

On Kingston Wash Road, at the gate to the wilderness. Location of collections 1569-1574.
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Kingston Wash Road in Shadow Valley
 
  1569  Field identification: Calycoseris wrightii

Rafinesquia californica Nutt. California Chicory.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. On the now closed road to Kingston Wash, 12.6 miles north on Cima Road, Kingston Road, and then Excelsior Mine Road from the intersection of US Interstate 15 and Cima Road, then 0.4 miles west to the gate at the Kingston Range Wilderness. 35.6094°N, 115.7382°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 953 m. Location of my collections 1569 to 1578.

Coll. No. 1569, 18 April 2017, characters observed while keying: Annual herb, to 35 cm.; Stem, glabrous, branching various, from base to distal ½; Leaves, basal and cauline, alternate, length 7.5 cm. × 2.5 cm. wide, much reduced above, lanceolate, deeply pinnately divided; Inflorescence, heads enclosed by an involucre, overtopping the leaves; Involucre, near cylindric, 22 mm.; Phyllaries, unequal, in 3+ graduated series, 8-22 mm., margins flat, chartaceous, centers green; Receptacle, epaleate; Flowers, rays only, surpassing phyllaries by 5-10 mm., Pappus, many well-developed plumose bristles, ±equal; Fruit, 6 mm., light brown, beak 4 mm.

  1570  Field identification: Larrea tridentata

Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. Creosote Bush.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. On the now closed road to Kingston Wash, 12.6 miles north on Cima Road, Kingston Road, and then Excelsior Mine Road from the intersection of US Interstate 15 and Cima Road, then 0.4 miles west to the gate at the Kingston Range Wilderness. 35.6094°N, 115.7383°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 961 m. Location of my collections 1569 to 1578.

  1570.1  Field identification: Indian Rice Grass.

Stipa hymenoides Roem. & Schult. Indian Rice Grass.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. On the now closed road to Kingston Wash, 12.6 miles north on Cima Road, Kingston Road, and then Excelsior Mine Road from the intersection of US Interstate 15 and Cima Road, then 0.4 miles west to the gate at the Kingston Range Wilderness. 35.6094°N, 115.7383°E. Elev. 961 m.

Other articles: Excelsior Mine Road at dirt road
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1570.2, Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens  

1570.2  Field identification: Red Brome.

Bromus madritensis L. ssp. rubens (L.) Husn. Red Brome.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. On the now closed road to Kingston Wash, 12.6 miles north on Cima Road, Kingston Road, and then Excelsior Mine Road from the intersection of US Interstate 15 and Cima Road, then 0.4 miles west to the gate at the Kingston Range Wilderness. 35.6094°N, 115.7383°E. WGS 1984 Elev. 961 m.

Coll. No. 1570.2, 18 April 2017, charcters observed: Annual grass, to 20 cm.; Inflorescence, 50 mm.; Spikelets, 40 mm., similar; Compression, lateral (looks strongly lateral to me, but this will send you down the wrong path); Glumes, lower, 7 mm., slightly keeled, few hairs, veins, 1, upper, 10 mm., rounded, veins, 3; Florets, 6+; Lemma, 13 mm. × 2.3 mm. wide, veins, 3, tip, bifid, awns, 1, 11 mm., attached to back; Palea, 9 mm., margin sparsely ciliate; Grain, 9 mm. × 1.3 mm. wide, flattened.

Other articles: Excelsior Mine Road at dirt road
Full Size ImageMix of staminate and pistillate flowers in inflorescence of Ambrosia dumosa
Full Size ImageOverview of Coll. No. 1571, Ambrosia dumosa  

1571  Field identification: Ambrosia dumosa

Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W. W. Payne. White Bur-Sage, Burroweed.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. On the now closed road to Kingston Wash, 12.6 miles north on Cima Road, Kingston Road, and then Excelsior Mine Road from the intersection of US Interstate 15 and Cima Road, then 0.4 miles west to the gate at the Kingston Range Wilderness. 35.6093°N, 115.7381°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 959 m. Location of my collections 1569 to 1578.

Coll. No. 1571, 18 April 2017, characters observed: Perennial shrub, to 40 cm.; Stem, woody, densely short strigose when young; Leaves, petiole 10 mm., blade 16 mm × 13 mm. wide, pinnately lobed, short strigose; Phyllaries (staminate flowers), fused at base, in 1 series, #7, eglandular, tip acute; Flowers, 2 kinds in different heads, staminate flowers, #15, pistilate flowers, #2; Pappus, 0; Style, 2-branched, fused(?); Fruit, bur, 6 mm. × 6 mm. wide, ±spheric, spines, #15, 2 mm.

Other articles: Excelsior Mine Road at dirt road
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1572, Schismus barbatus  

1572  Field identification: grass, revised 4/30/2017: Schismus barbatus.

Schismus barbatus (L.) Thell. Mediterranean Grass.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. On the now closed road to Kingston Wash, 12.6 miles north on Cima Road, Kingston Road, and then Excelsior Mine Road from the intersection of US Interstate 15 and Cima Road, then 0.4 miles west to the gate at the Kingston Range Wilderness. 35.6093°N, 115.7381°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 958 m. Location of my collections 1569 to 1574.

Coll. No. 1572, 18 April 2017, characters observed: Annual grass, 12-15 cm.; Ligule, finely hairy inside and out; Inflorescence, exceeding leaves, panicle; Spikelets, many, 1 per node; Glumes, 2, 5 mm., lower slightly > upper, veins, 5, keeled, scabrous; Florets, 2+ florets per spikelet; Lemma, lower, 1.7-1.8 mm., teeth widely triangular; Anther, small, 0.2-0.3 mm.; Achene, 0.8 mm., translucent.

Other articles: Excelsior Mine Road at dirt road
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1573, Ephedra nevadensis  

1573  Field identification: Ephedra nevadensis

Ephedra nevadensis S. Watson. Nevada Ephedra.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. On the now closed road to Kingston Wash, 12.6 miles north on Cima Road, Kingston Road, and then Excelsior Mine Road from the intersection of US Interstate 15 and Cima Road, then 0.4 miles west to the gate at the Kingston Range Wilderness. 35.6094°N, 115.7382°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 959 m. Staminate plant, no pistillate plants in immediate area. Location of my collections 1569 to 1574.

Literature Cited:
- Lamson-Scribner, F., 1898.

Other articles: Excelsior Mine Road at dirt road
Full Size ImageExample inflorescences of Coll. No. 1574, Hilaria rigida  

1574 
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1574, Hilaria rigida
Field identification: Hilaria rigida.

Hilaria rigida (Thurb.) Scribn. Big Galleta.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. On the now closed road to Kingston Wash, 12.6 miles north on Cima Road, Kingston Road, and then Excelsior Mine Road from the intersection of US Interstate 15 and Cima Road, then 0.4 miles west to the gate at the Kingston Range Wilderness. 35.6095°N, 115.7383°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 959 m. Location of my collections 1569 to 1574.

Coll. No. 1574, 18 April 2017, characters observed: Perennial grass, 50-60 cm., rhizomatous; Roots, stout; Stem, herbaceous; Internodes, solid, fluted, sparse soft long crinkly hairs (sparsely tomentose?); Leaves, blade and sheath differentiated, soft; Sheath, open; Ligule, membraneous, 1 mm., ciliate fringe (?) or laciniate (?); Inflorescence, 1 per culm, > leaves, 75-80 mm., spike, cylindric; Spikelets arranged in wedge-shaped clusters of 1 central spikelet and 2 lateral spikelets, on alternate sides of the rachis; Rachis, short hairy, not extended beyond upper spikelet; Spikelets, many, subtended by long silky hairs but < spikelet, similar, 3 per node, sessile, 8 mm.; Central spikelet, 1 bisexual floret; Lateral spikelet, 2 staminate florets; Glumes, present, rounded, veins 3-9, 6 mm., ± equal, awns, many (7 obs.); Lemma, 6 mm, ±glumes, membraneous, veins, 3, prominent, glabrous, parallel, tip, truncate, awns, 2 mm., straight, attached end; Anthers, 3.8 mm., lt. green with purple; Stigma, #2.

Other articles: Kingston Road along road
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1575, Yucca schidigera  

1575  Field identification: Yucca schidigera.

Yucca schidigera K. E. Ortgies. Mohave Yucca.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. Along Kingston Road, 13.4 miles north of US Interstate 15 on Kingston Road, and 0.9 miles northeast of the intersection of Kingston Road and Excelsior Mine Road. 35.6216°N, 115.7266°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 981 m. Also collected here, Coll. No. 1576, Ambrosia salsola.

  1576  Field identification: Hymenoclea salsola.

Ambrosia salsola (A. Gray) Strother & B. G. Baldwin. Cheesebush.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. Along Kingston Road, 13.4 miles north of US Interstate 15 on Kingston Road, and 0.9 miles northeast of the intersection of Kingston Road and Excelsior Mine Road. 35.6217°N, 115.7269°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 980 m. Also collected here, Coll. No. 1575, Yucca schidigera salsola.

Species Lists: Salvia dorrii  

1577  Field identification: Salvia dorrii.

Salvia dorrii (Kellogg) Abrams var. pilosa (A. Gray) J. L. Strachan & Rev. Purple Sage.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. Along Kingston Road, 17.2 miles north of US Interstate 15 on Kingston Road, and 4.6 miles northeast of the intersection of Kingston Road and Excelsior Mine Road. 35.6736°N, 115.7081°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 1123 m. Collected with Coll. No. 1578, Sphaeralcea ambigua.

Other articles: Kingston Road s. of Winters Pass
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1578, Sphaeralcea ambigua  

1578  Field identification: Sphaeralcea ambigua.

Sphaeralcea ambigua A. Gray var. ambigua. Apricot Mallow.

Shadow Valley, San Bernardino County, California. Along Kingston Road, 17.2 miles north of US Interstate 15 on Kingston Road, and 4.6 miles northeast of the intersection of Kingston Road and Excelsior Mine Road. 35.6738°N, 115.7079°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 1127 m. Collected with Coll. No. 1577, Salvia dorrii.

Coll. No. 1578, 18 April 2017, characters observed: Perennial herb, to 50 cm.; Hairs, stellate; Bractlets, #2-3; Calyx, 10 mm., fused at base; Flower, 17 mm. × 28 mm wide, showy, orange, fading pink; Anthers, near top of filament tube, not organized in concentric series, i.e., not Sidalcea Stigmas, head-like; Fruit, separate segments; Seeds, seeds per segment unknown.

Fruit needed to key to genus from family, not available in this collection.

Also with stellate hairs: some Brassicaceae, and Elaeagnus angustifolia “Russian Olive.”

  1579  Field identification: unknown, white flower.

Lepidium fremontii S. Watson. Desert Pepperweed.

Mesquite Mountains, San Bernardino County, California. 19.6 miles north of US Interstate 15 on Kingston Road, then 1.1 miles west on an unnamed cherry stem road into the North Mesquite Mountains Wilderness (road is 1.3 miles north of Wilson Pass). 35.7087°N, 115.716°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 1162 m. Location of my collections Coll. No. 1579 to 1590.

  1580  Field identification: little yellow composite.

Eriophyllum wallacei (A. Gray) A. Gray. Woolly Easter Bonnets.

Mesquite Mountains, San Bernardino County, California. 19.6 miles north of US Interstate 15 on Kingston Road, then 1.1 miles west on an unnamed cherry stem road into the North Mesquite Mountains Wilderness (road is 1.3 miles north of Wilson Pass). 35.7088°N, 115.716°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 1157 m. Location of my collections Coll. No. 1579 to 1590.

  1581  Field identification: Ericameria sp.
  1582  Field identification: Arenaria sp.
  1583  Field identification: Xylorhiza tortifolia
  1584  Field identification: Camissonia sp.
  1585  Field identification: Salazaria mexicana
  1586  Field identification: Phacelia sp.
  1587  Field identification: Other stuff, maybe a Galium sp.
  1588  Field identification: Plagiobothrys sp.
  1589  Field identification: Red brome.
  1590  Field identification: Mentzelia, sprawling, weak stem.

Other articles: Kingston Road 34000

Locations: Mesquite Lake.
Full Size ImageDust blown off the surface of Mesquite Lake.  

Very windy today. Dust being blown off the surface of Mesquite Lake.

 

   

Wednesday, April 19th

Las Vegas, Nevada to Monument Valley, Arizona.

Other articles: US Highway Alternate 89 at hiway pullout
Full Size ImageView of Shinarump Cliffs from US Highway 89A
Full Size ImageView of Shinarump Cliffs and Muggins Flat from US Highway 89A  

Crowbar Point above Johnson Run.  

Other articles: US Highway Alternate 89 at scenic view

Locations: House Rock. House Rock Valley. Vermilion Cliffs.
Full Size ImageVermilion Cliffs and House Rock Valley.  

House Rock Valley Scenic View.
Full Size Image
House Rock and ranch.
Full Size Image
Coyote Valley between Buckskin Mountain on the left (west) and the Paria Plateau on the right (east).
 

Other articles: US Highway Alternate 89 at House Rock
Full Size ImageCalochortus flexuosus at House Rock  

House Rock. No sign of any rock that looks like a house, or could provide shelter. We did find many of this pretty Calochortus, probably C. flexuosus along the road.

Other articles: US Highway Alternate 89 at Buffalo Rch Rd
Full Size ImageInterpretive panel at Buffalo Ranch Road.  

Wildlife Kiosk Interpretive Site.  

Other articles: US Highway Alternate 89 near Marble Canyon

Locations: Vermilion Cliffs.
Full Size ImageVermilion Cliffs beside US Highway 89A (Smart Phone).  

Full Size Image
Vermilion Cliffs beside US Highway 89A (Digital SLR).
 

 

Other articles: US Highway Alternate 89 Navajo Bridge

Locations: Navajo Bridge.
Full Size ImageVisitor Center for Navajo Bridge.  

Navajo Bridge

Full Size Image
The old bridge (now pedestrian access only) at Navajo Bridge.
Full Size Image
Colorado River upstream of the Navajo Bridge.
Full Size Image
Male of condor pair incubates egg while mate is out hunting.
 

Other articles: U. S. Hwy 89 at scenic view
Full Size ImageMarble Canyon and Vermilion Cliffs.
Full Size ImageBitter Springs from the scenic viewpoint.  

Scenic View of Marble Canyon and Vermilion Cliffs.  

 

   

Thursday, April 20th

 

Other articles: US Highway 163 in Monument Valley

Locations: Monument Valley.
Full Size ImageJohn Ford Point.  

Tour of Monument Valley.
Full Size Image
The View Hotel at Monument Valley.
Full Size Image
Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) in bloom at Monument Valley.
Full Size Image
Egg Arch in Monument Valley
Full Size Image
“Diablo,” the Navajo horse.
Full Size Image
East and West Mitten, and Merrick Butte; the view from our hotel room.
 

Other articles: US Highway 163 at the rock edge of town

Locations: Mexican Hat Rock.
Full Size ImageMexican Hat Rock, from the edge of town.  

Mexican Hat Rock.
Full Size Image
Mexican Hat Rock, just north of the town of Mexican Hat.
 

Other articles: Utah Highway 261 near top about 2/3 near US Hwy 163

Locations: Moki Dugway. Valley of the Gods.
Full Size ImageCedar Mesa above Valley of the Gods, Moki Dugway circled.  

Ascent and descent of the Moki Dugway.
Full Size Image
Valley of the Gods from Cedar Mesa at the top of the Moki Dugway
Full Size Image
Valley of the Gods from the Moki Dugway.
Full Size Image
About 2/3 of the way to the top.
 

Other articles: US Highway 163 at San Juan R

Locations: San Juan River.
Full Size ImageSan Juan River in Mexican Hat.  

 

 

   

Friday, April 21st

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 184 Anasazi Heritage Center

Locations: Mesa Verde. Sleeping Ute Mountain.
Full Size ImageAnasazi pueblo.  

Anasazi Heritage Center.
Full Size Image
Anasazi pueblo.
Full Size Image
Mesa Verde from Anasazi Heritage Center.
Full Size Image
Sleeping Ute Mountain from the Anasazi Heritage Center.
Full Size Image
San Juan Mountains from Anasazi Heritage Center.
 

 

   

Saturday, April 22nd

 

 

   

Tuesday, May 2nd

Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1591, garden escapee.  

1591  Field Identification: unknown, woody perennial, garden escapee, maybe Caprifoliaceae, same as Coll. No. 1705.

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
Full Size ImageObs. No. 1540, Opuntia macrorhiza  

Field identification: Lithospermum incisum.

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
Full Size ImageObs. No. 1540, Opuntia macrorhiza  

Field identification: Opuntia, probably O. macrorhiza.
  1592  Field identification: Leucocrinum montanum.

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1593, Viola nuttallii  

1593  Field identification: Viola nuttallii
  1594  Field identification: Colutea arborescens
  1595  Field identification: Mertensia lanceolata
  1596  Field identification: Muscari botryoides

 

   

Thursday, May 5th

Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space  
  1597  Field identification: Alyssum simplex

Full Size ImageColl. No. 1598, Prunus americana
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1598, Prunus americana  
1598  Field identification: Prunus americana
  1599  Field identification: Brassicaceae, annual, glabrous.

 

   

Monday, May 8th

 

Other articles: Social Trail along trail

Locations: North Table Mountain Park.
Full Size ImageColuber constrictor mormon “Western yellow-bellied racer” on North Table Mountain  

North Table Mountain, by way of social trail at Easley Road and Hwy 58, to the top of the mesa on North Table Loop.
Full Size Image
Coluber constrictor mormon “Western yellow-bellied racer” on North Table Mountain
 
  Lithospermum incisum, one plant seen beside game trail.

Full Size ImageObs. No. 1552, Cynoglossum officinale
Full Size ImageObs. No. 1552, Cynoglossum officinale  
Field identification: Cynoglossum officinale L. Gypsyflower.

Other articles: North Table Loop below rim
Full Size ImageObs. No. 1553, Coryphantha vivipara  

Field identification: Coryphantha vivipara
  1600  Field identification: Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Virginia Creeper.
  1601  Field identification: Galium aparine.

Other articles: North Table Loop near creek  

1603  Field identification: Eleocharis, maybe E. palustris.

Other articles: North Table Loop near creek  

1602.1  Field identification: Veronica, maybe V. arvensis

 

   

Saturday, May 13th

 

Locations: Colorado School of Mines Survey Field. Windy Saddle Park.
Full Size ImageColorado School of Mines Survey Field from the northwest corver.
Full Size ImageColorado School of Mines Survey Field from the northwest corver.  

Colorado School of Mines and lowest Windy Saddle Park.
  1603  Field identification: Lithospermum incisum
  1604  Field identification: Rubus deliciousus
  1605  Field identification: Ribes cereum
  1606  Field identification:Juniperus communis
  1607  Field identification: Brassicaceae.
  1608  Field identification: Mertensia lanceolata
  1609  Field identification: Prunus virginiana
  1610  Field identification: Cerastium arvense L. ssp. strictum Gaudin

 

   

Monday, May 15th

 

Other articles: Social Trail (N. Ford to Jackson) n. e. corner Social Trail (Up. Wash. Ave. OS) near top

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
Full Size ImageArea mowed by neighbors in the public open space.  

Upper Washington Avenue Open Space
Full Size Image
High density of Echinocereus viridiflorus
 

Other articles: Social Trail (Up. Wash. Ave. OS) at tree
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1611, Prunus virginiana, below an, as yet, unidentified small tree.  

1611  Field identification: Prunus virginiana
  1612  Field identification: Erigeron, probably not E. flagillaris.
  1613  Field identification: Alyssum simplex

Other articles: Social Trail (Up. Wash. Ave. OS) near top
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1614, Castilleja integra, along the top of the Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.  

1614  Field identification: Castilleja, likely C. integra
  1615  Field identification: Oxytropis lambertii
  1616  Field identification: Tragopogon dubius
  1617  Field identification: Lithospermum incisum
  1618  Field identification: Ribes cereum
  1619  Field identification: Prunus, maybe P. domestica
  1620  Field identification: Comandra umbellata
  1621  Field identification: Astragalus drummondii
  1622  Field identification: Erodium cicutarium
  1623  Field identification: Scorzonera laciniata

 

   

Monday, May 22nd

 

Other articles: Mesa Top Trail below switchback

Locations: North Table Mountain Park.
Full Size ImageColor variation in Tradescantia occidentalis.  

North Table Mountain, from Easley Road, Lithic Trail, North Table Loop, and old road to Mesa Top Trail.
Full Size Image
Fruit of Astragalus crassicarpus
Full Size Image
Habitat of Astragalus crassicarpus on North Table Mountain.
Full Size Image
Spray-painted graffiti on North Table Mountain.
Full Size Image
Small stream on east side of North Table Mountain.
Full Size Image
Mesa Top Trail, on east side of North Table Mountain.
Full Size Image
Old road on the side of North Table Mountain.
Full Size Image
North Table Loop from the Mesa Top Trail
 
  1624  Field identification: Astragalus, maybe A. crassicarpus.
  1625  Field identification: Astragalus, flower only, no fruit.
  1626  Field identification: grass, maybe Poa secunda

Full Size ImageGrassy habitat of Coll. No. 1627, Zigadenus paniculatus  
1627  Field identification: Zigadenus
  1628  Field identification: Delphinium, likely D. nuttallianum.

 

   

Thursday, May 25th

 

Locations: Colorado School of Mines Survey Field.  

Southern end of Survey Field.
  1629  Field identification: Lithospermum incisum
  1630  Field identification: definitely Poa, maybe P. pratensis

Full Size ImageLocation of Coll. No. 1631, Scutellaria brittonii  
1631  Field identification: Scutellaria brittonii
  1632  Field identification: Veronica, maybe V. serpyllifolia

Full Size ImageLocation of Coll. Nos. 1632-4.
Full Size ImageLocation of Coll. Nos. 1632-4.  
1633  Field identification: Brassicaceae, annual, white flowers.
  1634  Field identification: Brassicaceae, yellow flowers.
  1635  Field identification: Astragalus drummondii
  1636  Field identification: Lupinus argenteus
  1637  Field identification: Packera, maybe P. plattensis

Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1638, Erysimum capitatum  
1638  Field identification: Erysimum capitatum

 

   

Tuesday, May 30th

 

Other articles: Social Trail (Up. Wash. Ave. OS) west of top

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
Full Size ImageGeneral view looking east across the top of the hill.  

Full Size Image
Sprinkler and plastic landscape netting in the western section.
Full Size Image
One of two irrigation pipes on the west slope.
Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
  1639  Field identification: Penstemon secundiflorus
  1640  Field identification: Penstemon virens
  1641  Field identification: Linaria dalmatica
  1642  Field identification: Physaria montana
  1643  Field identification: Senecio or Solidago
  1644  Field identification: Bromus tectorum

Full Size ImageColl. No. 1645, Elaeagnus angustifolia  
1645  Field identification: Elaeagnus angustifolia
  1646  Field identification: Medicago sativa

 

   

Thursday, June 1st

 

Locations: North Table Mountain Park.  

North Table Mountain, from Mesa Spur trailhead on W. 58th Avenue, around the northeast side.
  Field identification: Campanula rotundifolia, many plants in bud, four open flowers, around the base of the boulder.

Full Size ImageObs. No. 1564, Undetermined
Full Size ImageObs. No. 1564, Undetermined
Full Size ImageObs. No. 1564, Undetermined  
Obs. No. 1564, Field identification: Undetermined, Leaves basal, stipules 10 mm., 2×pinnate, margins revolute; few flowers on a bare scape.
  Field identification: Tall robust grass, not Big Blue Stem.
  1647  Field identification: Astragalus flexuousus

Other articles: North Table Loop along trail
Full Size ImageLeaf of undetermined tree.
Full Size ImageUndetermined tree beside North Table Loop.  

1648  Field identification: Unknown tree on northeast side of North Table Mountain, no reproductive structures visible, nothing that even looks like a bud. Last visited 29 Jul 2016.
  1649  Field identification: Sphaeralcea coccinea
  1650  Field identification: Potentilla fissa
  1651  Field identification: Poa bulbosa
  1652  Field identification: Nasella viridula
  1653  Field identification:Phlox, maybe P. longifolia

Other articles: North Table Loop s. of williams parcel
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1654, Symphoricarpos sp.  

1654  Field identification: Symphoricarpos sp.

 

   

Monday, June 5th

 

Full Size ImageSome things that can be seen from North Table Mountain.  
Slopes on northwest side of North Table Mountain.

Full Size ImageObs. No. 1567, Orobanche fasciculata  
Obs. No. 1567, field identification: Orobanche fasciculata
  1655  Field identification: Unknown forb, leaves basal, petioled, palmate veined, simple, Infl scapose panicle, calyx 5s, petals 5-6, small white, style 2; maybe Heuchera parvifolia
  1656  Field identification: Oenothera suffrutescens
  1657  Field identification: Euphorbia esula
  1658  Field identification: Physocarpus monogynus

 

   

Thursday, June 8th

 

Other articles: North Table Mountain Trail at social trail

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
Full Size ImageOpen Space from North Table Mountain.  

Full Size Image
Woodsia in a crevice on west side of North Table Mountain.
North Table Mountain, west side, mostly a pre-walk of upcoming field trips.
  1659  Field identification: Paronychia jamesii

 

   

Saturday, June 10

 

Locations: North Table Mountain Park.
Full Size ImagePhemeranthus parviflorus on top of North Table Mountain.  

North Table Mountain field trip for Colorado Native Plant Society.

 

   

Friday, June 16th

 

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.  

Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
  1660  Field identification: Bromus inermis
  1661  Field identification: Delphinium virescens
  1662  Field identification: Tradescantia occidentalis
  1663  Field identification: looks familiar, maybe Hymenopappus filifolia
  1664  Field identification: Heterotheca villosa
  1665  Field identification: Gaillardia aristata
  1666  Field identification: Total mystery at first, no flowers open, but now I think it is Gypsophila paniculata, Baby's Breath.
  1667  Field identification: Grass.
  1668  Field identification: Erigeron with long trailing branches, maybe E. flagellaris.
  1669  Field identification: Bromus japonicus
  1670  Field identification: Rosa arkansana
  1671  Field identification: Oenothera suffrutescens
  1672  Field identification: Convolvulus arvensis -- Bind weed!!
  1673  Field identification: Buchloë dactyloides

 

   

Monday, June 19th

 

Locations: Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park.  

Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space
  1674  Field identification: Buchloë dactyloides
  1675  Field identification: Lupinus, whitish flowers, robust, and less hairy than the typical L. argentea
  Field identification: Spurge???

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1902.  

?
ERIGERON COMMIXTUS. With the habit of E. flagellaris, smaller, less stoloniferous, the leaves relatively broader, some entire, others with one or more conspicuous lobes at base of the blade, the whole plant almost hoary with a stiffly hirsute pubescence, this spreading on the leaves and petioles, retrorse on the stems and peduncles : heads, rays, achenes, etc., much as in E. flagellaris.

Canon of the Limpia, mountains of western Texas, 26 April, 1902, S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle; also collected by the present writer, in the same general region, namely, in the mountains near Silver City, New Mexico, 18 May, 1880, and distributed for E. flagellaris. The species last named has a rather obscure, fine closely appressed hairiness. That of the new one is so extremely different, that were the plants of the size of a Sunflower or Goldenrod, no botanist would confuse them as one species, were the pubescence the only character. I may remark that true E. flagellaris reaches the mountains of even southern New Mexico, where, however, it occurs only in a more elevated biological zone.

We now treat E. commixtus as a synonym of E. tracyi.

ERIGERON TRACYI. Allied to the last but dwarf, only 2 or 3 inches high, densely leafy at base and with no stolons (at least at flowering time): petioles of the spatulate-lanceolate entire leaves shorter than the blade or obsolete; the whole herbage silvery-hoary with a fine dense strigulose pubescence, or this more sparse and spreading on the solitary scapiform peduncle: involucre hispidulous: outer pappus very conspicuous though consisting of only shorter and setiform hairs, the inner of a few very delicate capillary ones.

Davis Mountains, western Texas, Tracy and Earle, 28 April, 1902.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.  

? 334. E. FLAGELLARE (sp. nov.): bienne ? striguloso-puberulum, pumilum; caulibus gracillimis e basi ramosis, floriferis seu primariis simplicibus superne aphyllis monocephalis, sterilibus patentibus flagelliformibus; foliis spathulatis mucronulatis inferioribus in petiolum gracilem attenuatis integris seu radicalibus parce inciso-lobatis, ramealibus parvulis sublinearibus sessilibus; ligulis numerosis gracilibus (albis purpureo tinctis) involucrum hirsutum duplo superantibus; pappo radii et disci conformi duplici, exteriore coroniformi-squamellato conspicuo, interiore e setis sub-20 fragilibus. — Low, moist places, along Santa Fe Creek; May, June. (381.) -- Root slender. Flowering stems 5 to 7 inches high, very slender, few-leaved below the middle, naked and pedunculiform above; the head rather smaller than in the preceding species; the involucre, &c., similar. Lower leaves one to two inches long, including the slender petiole; those of the runner-like sterile branches decreasing to 2 or 3 lines in length. This species should rank next to the foregoing.

The “foregoing” was Erigeron cinereum (sp. nov.), now treated as a synonym of E. tracyi Greene. The head was described as “… as large as those on Bellis perennis …” and the involucre was described as “… hirsutum duplo superantibus …” [… coarse erect or ascending hairs doubly … ??? ]

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1841.  

Torrey & Gray (1841, p. 175) in Flora of North America proposed Erigeron divergens for the small fleabane that was previously illegimately published by Nuttall as E. divaricatuum.
?26. E. divergens: somewhat hoary with a minute hirsute pubescence, diffusely branched from the base; leaves small, entire, acute; the radical somewhat spatulate, narrowed into a short petiole; the cauline scattered, sessile, linear, narrowed at the base; heads (small) mostly solitary terminating the naked branchlets or peduncles; rays very narrow and numerous, twice the length of the hirsute involucre; inner pappus of few (8-12) very slender and deciduous bristles. —Erigeron (Oligotrichium) divaricatuum, Nutt.! in trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 7. p. 311, not of Michx.

Rocky Mountains, and plains of the interior of Oregon, Nuttall ! —(? Stems about a foot high, diffuse, ascending, slender, at length much branched. Leaves half an inch to an inch long, 1 to 2 lines wide. mucronate-acute. Heads rather smaller than in E. tenue; the rays (white, Nutt.) nearly similar; the exterior pappus shorter.

 

   

Wednesday, June 28th

 

Locations: Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park.  

Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space.
  1677  Field identification: Poa, rhizomatous.
  1678  Field identification: Apocynum, likely the hybrid.
  1679  Field identification: Erigeron flagellaris, stem hairs antrorsely appressed.
  1680  Field identification: Potentilla recta.
  1681  Field identification: Achnatherum sp.

Coll. No. 1681, 28 June 2017; Perennial, to 80 cm., clumped; Stem, herbaceous; Leaves, blade and sheath differentiated, soft; Sheath, open; Ligule, membraneous, 5 mm., forked, auricles, 2.5, 5.0 mm.; Blade, flat, glabrous, sparsely scabrous; Inflorescence, 1 per culm, 25 cm., panicle, branching evident, >leaves; Rachis, glabrous, not extended beyond upper spikelet; Spikelets, many, similar, 1 per node; Compression, unremarkable; Disarticulation, above the glumes; Florets, 1 per spikelet, bisexual; Glumes, both present, ±equal, 25 mm., rounded, veins #5, awns 0, tip somewhat awn-like, margins entire; Callus, sharp, 2.5 mm.; Lemma, 11-14 mm., < glumes, tough, rolled, color, medium brown, veins ≥5, hairs, to 2 mm proximally to glabrous distally, color dark brown, awns, #1, 9.5 cm., twisted, attached, end; Palea, ±lemma, glabrous;

  1682  Field identification: Potentilla norvegica
  1683  Field identification: Trifolium “Clover”
  1684  Field identification: Verbena bracteata
  1685  Field identification: Cirsium arvense
  1686  Field identification: Medicago sativa
  1687  Field identification: Melilotus officinalis

Full Size ImageColl. No. 1688, Erythranthe sp.  
1688  Field identification: Erythranthe sp.

Full Size ImageColl. No. 1689, Crassula aquatica  
1689  Field identification: Crassula, maybe C. aquatica.

Full Size ImageColl. No. 1689.1, Phemeranthus parviflorus  
1689.1  Field identification: Phemeranthus parviflorus

Full Size ImageColl. No. 1689.2, Plagiobothrys scouleri  
1689.2  Field identification: Plagiobothrys scouleri

Full Size ImageColl. No. 1689.3, Alopecurus geniculatus  
1689.3  Field identification: Alopecurus geniculatus

Full Size ImageColl. No. 1689.4, Juncus bufonius and Coll. No. 1689.6, Limosella aquatica.  
1689.4  Field identification: Juncus bufonius

Full Size ImageColl. No. 1689.5, Veronica peregrina ssp. xalapensis  
1689.5  Field identification: Veronica peregrina

Full Size ImageColl. No. 1689.4, Juncus bufonius and Coll. No. 1689.6, Limosella aquatica.  
1689.6  Field identification: Limosella aquatica

 

   

Thursday, June 29th

 

Locations: North Table Mountain Park.  

North Table Mountain, from Dunraven Circle, to the radio tower and pond, then down by bushwhacking.
  1690  Field identification: Buchloë dactyloides
  1691  Field identification: Pascopyron smithii
  1692  Field identification: Achnatherum sp.
  1693  Field identification: grass.
  1694  Field identification: Melilotus officinalis
  1695  Field identification: Eriogonum, maybe E. flavum
  1696  Field identification: Limosella aquatica
  1697  Field identification: Monarda fistulosa

 

   

Friday, July 7th

 
  Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space, as a pre-walk for my field trip tomorrow.
  1698  Field identification: Nassella viridula

Coll. No. 1698, 7 July 2017: Perennial, to 70 cm., clumped, non-rhizomatous; Stem, herbaceous; Inflorescence, 25 cm., 1 per culm, panicle; Rachis, lightly scabrous, not extended beyond upper spikelet; Compression, unremarkable; Spikelets, 1 per node; Florets, 1 per spikelet, bisexual; Glumes, both present, upper 8 mm., lower 9 mm., rounded, membraneous, veins, #3; Callus, short; Lemma, 5 mm., <glumes, tough, hairy, <1 mm., awns, #1, 25 mm., bent, short hairy (±0.2 mm.) Palea, 1.5 mm., <lemma, membraneous, glabrous; Stamens, #3.

  1699  Field identification: Elymus canadensis
  1700  Field identification: Rhamnaceae, maybe Ceanothus fendleri

 

   

Friday, July 14th

 

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.  

Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
  1701  Field identification: Cirsium arvense
  1702  Field identification: Ratibida columnifera
  1703  Field identification: Pediomelum tenuiflorum
  1704  Field identification: Helianthus pumila
  1705  Field identification: Horticultural Caprifoliaceae, same as Coll. No. 1591.
  1706  Field identification: Parthenocissus vitacea
  1707  Field identification: Thelesperma megapotamicum
  1708  Field identification: Eriogonum arcuatum
  1709  Field identification:Thinopyrum intermedium
  1710  Field identification: Gypsophila paniculata
  Field identification: Carduus nutans
  1712  Field identification: Symphyotrichum sp.

 

   

Friday, July 28th

 

Locations: Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park.  

Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space.
  1713  Field identification: Grass, multiple infl. per culm, spikelets tightly appressed, Aegilops cylindrica ???
  1714  Field identification: Sporobolus heterolepis
  1715  Field identification: Sunflower, Helianthus? long, stiff, coarse hairs.
  1716  Field identification: Stiff Sunflower, Helianthus pauciflorus var. subrhiomboideus
  1717  Field identification: Grass, Squirrel Tail(?)
  1718  Field identification: Epilobium or Gaytophytum
  1719  Field identification: Oenothera elata
  1720  Field indeitifcation: Eriogonum arcuatum
  1721  Field identification: Lycopus americanus
  1722  Field identification: Mentha arvensis
  1724  Field identification: Galium, with a stiff stem.
  1724  Field identification: Ranunculus, maybe R. macounii
  1725  Field identification: Geranium caespitosum
  1726  Field identification: Schoenoplectus, maybe S. acutus
  1727  Field identification: Alisma triviale, based upon a similar collection across the highway at Rocky Flats.
  1728  Field identification: Eleocharis sp.
  1729  Field identification: Some kind of Scroph, maybe Gratiola neglecta
  1730  Field identification: Some kind of knotweed, quickly settling on Polygonum pennsylvanicum while looking at photos.
  1731  Field identification: definitely Mentzelia, maybe M. nuda.

 

   

Tuesday, August 15th

 

Locations: North Table Mountain Park.  

North Table Mountain, northwest side, off trail.
  1732  Field identification: Solidago, probably S. missouriensis
  1733  Field identification: Euphorbia, past flowering, probably E. esula
  1734  Field identification: Fern, maybe Woodsia oregana
  1735  Field identification: Grass, maybe Schizachyrium scoparium
  1736  Field identification: Liatris punctata
  1737  Field identification: Grindelia squarrosa
  1738  Field identification: Rocky Mountain Maple, Acer glabrum
  1739  Field identification: Physocarpus monogynus, in fruit.
  1740  Field identification: First thought was an unusual Stipae, but probably Nassella viridula
  1741  Field identification: Some sort of Gilia s. l.
  1742  Field identification: Mentzelia sp.
  1743  Field identification: Bouncingbet.

 

   

Wednesday, August 23rd

 

Other articles: Cheyenne Street near 4th
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1743.5, Symphyotrichum ericoides  

1743.5  Field identification: Symphyotrichum sp.

Symphyotrichum ericoides (Linnaeus) G. L. Nesom. White Heath Aster.

Golden, Jefferson County, Colorado. Edge of the yard on Cheyenne Street at 908 4th Street, 1 km northwest of the GNIS location of Golden. 39.7614°N, 105.2301°W. WGS 1984 Elev. 5785 ft. Native to the area, but ruderal in this location, as sometimes also observed with Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens and Senecio spartioides.

Perennial, woody at base, stems ascending, to 40 cm., spreading vegetatively, short hairy and minutely glandular throughout; Leaves, alternate, sessile, narrowly lanceolate or oblong, 7-9 mm. × 1.5 mm. wide, entire, strigose, tip, small white spine; Heads, borne singly along stem, occasionally 2 per stem, on leafy pedicels; Flowers, of 2 kinds; Involucre, 4 mm. × 5 mm. wide, bell-shaped; Phyllaries, 2+ series, 3-4 mm. × 0.7-0.8 mm. wide, white below with 1 brown or green vein, rhomboid green above, tip with very small spine; Receptacle, epaleate; Rays, corolla, white, tube 2 mm + ligule 5.0-6.5 mm., fertile; Disc flowers, corolla, yellow, tube 3.5 mm. + lobes 0.5 mm., (some?) lobes reddish; Pappus, bristles, fine, barbelate, 4 mm.; Cypsela, 1 mm. (Described from Coll. No. 1558, 3 September 2016 and Coll. No. 1743.5, 23 August 2017).

 

   

Thursday, August 31st

 

Locations: Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.  

Upper Washington Avenue Open Space.
  1744  Field identification: Bouteloua gracilis
  1745  Field identification: Euphorbia myrsinites
  1746  Field identification: Malva neglecta
  1747  Field identification: Liatris punctata
  1748  Field identification: Ambrosia psilostachya
  1749  Field identification: Lactuca, probably L. serriola
  1750  Field identification: Chenopodium album
  1751  Field identification: Gutierrezia sarothrae
  1752  Field identification: Solidago, maybe S. missouriensis
  1753  Field identification: Artemisia ludoviciana
  1754  Field identification: Artemisia dracunculus
  1755  Field identification: Senecio spartioides
  1756  Field identification: Eriogonum effusum
  1757  Field identification: grass.
  1758  Field identification: Brickellia eupatorioides
  1759  Field identification: Solidago, maybe S. nana, compare to Coll. No. 1752.
  1760  Field identification: Erigeron, maybe Symphyotrichum falcatum like found at Tin Cup Ridge.

 

   

Friday, September 1st

 
  Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space
  1761  Field identification: Gentiana affinis
  1762  Field identification: Sorghastrum nutans
  1763  Field identification: Ambrosia psilostachya
  1764  Field identification: Schizachyrium scoparium
  1765  Field identification: Grindelia squarrosa
  1766  Field identification: Bouteloua curtipendula
  1767  Field identification: Artemisia campestris
  1768  Field identification: Solidago, elongated inflorescence, rosettes of leaves growing from caudex, likely S. missouriensis.
  1768  Field identification: Solidago, maybe S. rigida var. humilis
  1770  Field identification: Symphyotrichum porteri
  1771  Field identification: Symphyotrichum, either S. ericoides or S. falcatum
  1772  Field identification: Epilobium brachycarpum

 

   

Saturday, September 9th

 

 

   

Sunday, September 10th

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 115 Cheyenne Mountain State Park

Locations: Cheyenne Mountain State Park.
Full Size ImageCheyenne Montain from the state park.  

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 105 72000

Locations: Palmer Lake.
Full Size ImagePalmer Lake  

Palmer Lake

 

   

Sunday, September 17th

Golden to Buena Vista  

Other articles: U. S. Highway 50 Cañon City

Locations: Cañon City.
Full Size ImageA former railroad depot in Cañon City  

Cañon City
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Fremont Cattlemen's Association Brand Board
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Two old buildings on Main Street, Cañon City
 

 

Other articles: County Road 3A Royal Gorge Bridge and Park Royal Gorge

Locations: Royal Gorge. Royal Gorge Bridge.
Full Size ImageDRGW 499 on display at Royal Gorge.  

Royal Gorge Bridge

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Royal Gorge Bridge
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Interpretive panel for Royal Gorge Bridge
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Looking down into the gorge from the bridge
Royal Gorge

Lt. Zebulon Pike and his men, who traveled through this area in November and December 1806, were the first American explorers to view the Arkansas River canyon now known as the Royal Gorge. A small party from the Maj. Stephen H. Long expedition visited the mouth of the canyon in 1820, as did members of Lt. John C. Fremont's expedition in 1845.

In 1878 a right of way through the Royal Gorge became the focal point of a bitter struggle between the Denver and Rio Grande and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroads, with the D and RG eventually winning the route through court action. Congress ceded the land comprising the Royal Gorge Park to Cañon City in 1906, and the world's highest suspension bridge spanning the Arkansas River 1053 feet below was built in 1929.

Elevation 6,626 feet.

Erected by the State Historical Society of Colorado

 

   

Monday, September 18th

Salida to Creede  

Locations: Methodist Mountain.
Full Size ImageMethodist Mountain from Salida in the early morning  

Methodist Mountain from our hotel room.

 

Other articles: U. S. Highway 50 91960

Locations: Maysville.
Full Size ImageMaysville School  

Maysville

 

 

Other articles: U. S. Highway 50 91920

Locations: Monarch (historical).
Full Size ImageMining area at Monarch  

Monarch

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Turning aspens at Monarch.
 

 

Other articles: U. S. Highway 50 at Monarch Pass

Locations: Monarch Pass.
Full Size ImageMonarch Pass, 11,306 ft.  

Monarch Pass

 

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 near Powderhorn

Locations: Powderhorn.
Full Size ImageInterpretive panel for Powderhorn Valley.  

Powderhorn

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View southwest to the populated place of Powderhorn
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Horses grazing in Powderhorn Valley
Powderhorn Valley

Powderhorn Valley was named by mountain men and fur trappers because the shape of the valley resembles a bison horn that would have been used to keep gunpowder dry.

The Post Office in Powderhorn Valley was established in 1876 when the valley was settled by ranch families looking for lush grassland to support cattle. In the early years, Powderhorn Valley supplied beef and potatoes that fed the hungry miners and most of the hay for the horses, mules, and burros that worked in the mines in the mountains above Lake City.

For years, families shopped at Youman's store. Everything in the store was behind the counter and customers had to ask for needed items. Household goods, including fabric, nails, flour, and seed were available only in bulk and needed to tbe measured or weighed at the time goods were sold.

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 Gateview

Locations: Gateview.
Full Size ImageInterpretive panel for the Old Spanish Trail  

Gateview

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Interpretive panel “Lost in a Blizzard”
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Looking downstream on the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River
The Old Spanish Trail 1829-1848

Between 1829 and 1848 woolen goods were transported by mule caravans from the Mexican outpost of Santa Fe to the Missions of Southern California on the Old Spanish Trail.

Annual mule pack caravans traveled the historic Old Spanish Trail between Santa Fe, New Mexico and Los Angeles, California. Traders from Santa Fe headed to San Gabriel Mission as a welcome destination. They brought woolen goods from New Mexico and returned with highly prized California mules and horses. Following ancient Native American trails, the trade route went into central Utah during Spanish Colonial days and continued as an emigrant trail during the Mexican period. Anglo trappers and military expeditions, including John Fremont, Kit Carson, and John Gunnison used various routes of what is now recognized as the Old Spanish National Historic Trail.

In June 1853, Lieutenant Edward Beale, accompanied by Gwinn Harris Heap detailed their travel route through this area. Head wrote “ … we crossed the two forks of the Jaroso (Cebolla Creek and Powderhorn Creek) … we rested for the night by a small shallow brook, very marshy, and swarming with mosquitos … Numbers of deer and antelopes were seen; indeed, these sheltered calleys seem expressly intended as coverts for those gentle animals … Traders from Abiquiu come by it into these mountains to barter for peltries with the Utahs (Ute Indians).”

Lost in a Blizzard

“In the Colorado Rockies where the snow is deep and cold … a man afoot can starve to death unless he's brave and bold.” -- Ballad of Alferd Packer

What is now recognized as one of the most notorious events in Colorado's history -- cannibalism by Alferd Packer -- unfolded in the valley below you. If was here that Alferd Packer and his men made a most disastrous mistake, then missed a turn in the trail and became hopelessly lost in the San Juan Mountains.

On that fateful day in February 1874, Alferd Packer became lost in a severe snow storm while guiding five men from Salt Lake City ti the Los Piños Indian Agency, located south of what is now Gunnison. At the time, the Old Spanish Trail was a well worn trail that continued on to Taos and Santa Fe. Unfortunately, snow covered the trail in the valley below and the hapless men continued to the south instead of remaining in the trail to the east.

Cannibalism in the high country could have been averted had they remained on the correct trail towards Cohetopa Pass.

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at The Gate

Locations: The Gate.
Full Size ImageInterpretive panel at The Gate  

The Gate

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The walls of The Gate
Keeping the Peace

The trail is well worn, and the peeled trees show that the valley has been much frequented by (Ute) Indians.

Gold was discovered in the San Juan Mountains in the late 1860s leading to a rush of miners. Tension rose between the miners seeking gold and the Ute Indians who lived and hunted in the mountains. As a result, the U. S. Government negotiated the Brunot Treaty in 1873 with Chief Ouray and the Weminuche Ute.

At this point we passed the Great Gate, a rift in a spar sweeping around from range to range across the calley.” -- Lt. E. H. Ruffner, Corps of Engineers, Reconnaissance in the Ute Country, 1873

That same year, the military sent Lt. E. H. Ruffner into the San Juan Mountains to document mining operations in Southern Colorado and evaluate the effectiveness of the Brunot Treaty. Ruffner noted, “While at Camp 47 we were visited by many western Utes, mostly well armed, well mounted, and well dressed; uncommonly clean, smiling and civil; short men, with broad muscular shoulders.”

Literature Cited:
- Pitblado, Bonnie L., 2015.

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at interp. stop

Locations: Lake City.  

Roadside interpretive stop.
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Hazy view of turning aspens
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Interpretive panel for Early Holocene Encampment
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Interpretive panel for Lake City Caldera
A Volcanic History

Twenty million years ago this entire region was geologically active as massive volcanoes changed the face of the landscape.

If you were here 23 million years ago, you would be standing on the northern edge of that is now called the Lake City Caldera. As the magma chamber emptied from this massive volcano it could no longer hold its shape. The volcano collapsed and fell into itself. This formed the landscape we see today. Most of the rocks surrounding the caldera including granite, obsidian, basalt, tuff and pumice are direct evidence of this region's violent volcanic past.

A caldera is a caldron-like feature formed by the collapse of land following a volcanic eruption. With the collapse of the Lake City and Silverton calderas, a volcanic soup of minerals was injected into the surrounding rock. This produced a rich intrusion of silver, gold, lead, copper, tellurium, and iron. For millions of years, these deposits remained untouched until discovered by prospectors in the 1860s and 1870s.

Early Holocene Encampment

Nearly 10,000 years ago, archaic hunters and gatherers camped along the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River. Here they hunted wild game such as bighorn sheep and elk in these alpine valleys.

At the end of the last Ice Age, Archaic big game hunters skillfully hunted animals such as elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and a now extinct variety of bison (Bison taylori). Archaeological evidence indicates that these hunters camped along the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River. Stone tools found in these emcampments include bifaces, drills, scrapers, projectile points, and point fragments.

Near the end of the Ice Age, during a colder and wetter period of time, Archaic hunters lived in small bands. Indications are that they did not stay in any one place very long, but moved often in search of game animals.

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 Lake City

Locations: Lake City.
Full Size ImageHinsdale County Court House  

Lake City

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Turning aspens above Lake City
 

 

Literature Cited:
- Anonymous, 2015.

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at massacre site

Locations: Alferd Packer Massacre Site.  

Alferd Packer Massacre Site

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Interpretive panel at Alferd Packer massacre site.
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Plaque at Alferd Packer massacre site.
Alferd Packer

You man eating son of a … There was seven Democrats in Hinsdale County and you ate five of them.” -- Quote attributed to saloon keeper Larry Dolan after Alferd Packer's first trial.

In February 1874, Alferd Packer became lost in a severe snow storm while guiding five men from Salt Lake City to the Los Piños Agency , (south of Gunnison). In mid-April, Packer arrived at the Los Piños Agency -- alone. Upon interrogation, he claimed that as each person died the other men ate the flesh of the dead. Packer said he killed only one person, but only in self-defense. That summer, five bodies were discovered at this site. Each person's head had been crushed. Alferd Packer was arrested and accused of murder and cannabalism. Before his trial, however, he fled Colorado.

Nine years later, Packer was captured in Wyoming and was returned to Colorado. He was found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to prison for forty years. After serving fifteen years he was paroled in 1901. Until his death in 1907, Packer maintained his innocence in one of the most notorious events in Colorado's history.

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at overlook

Locations: Lake San Cristobal. Slumgullion Earthflow.
Full Size ImageSlumgullion Earthflow from Lake San Cristobal Overlook  

Lake San Cristobal

This is the best place along Colorado Highway 149 to view the Slumgullion Earthflow.
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Lower end of Lake San Cristobal
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Upper end of Lake San Cristobal
 

 

Literature Cited:
- Varnes, D. J., and W. Z. Savage, eds.,, 1996.

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at overlook

Locations: Slumgullion Earthflow.  

Slumgullion Earthflow Overlook

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View of Slumgullion from the official viewpoint
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Interpretive panel for Slumgullion Earthflow
Slumgullion Earthflow

The Slumgullion Earthflow was listed on the Natural Registry of Natural Landmarks in 1965 and designated a Colorado Natural Area in 1983.

Imagine what it must have looked like as a massive block of rock, dirt, and forest broke away from Mesa Seco and an enormous earthflow oozed into the valley below. About 850 years ago, during a very wet period of time, a series of slow-moving landslides occurred. the largest landslide dropped over 3,000 feet in elevation and extended downhill more than four miles. What is now called the Slumgullion Earth flow altered the landscape on over 1,000 acres and created Lake San Cristobal.

The story, however, is not over. About 350 years ago, the most recent earthflow began to descend. This flow covered half of the older flows and is still active today. Geologists estimate that in places it is still moving downhill about twenty feet per year.

Slumgullion is a mining word used to describe the muddy clay left in the bottom of a sluice box. However, miners often cooked a hearty and colorful stew that resembles the color of the Slumgullion Earthflow.

Slumgullion Stew


1½ lb. stew meat
1 sliced onion
1 bunch carrots
3 red potatoes
1 bell pepper
1 can black-eyed peas
4-6 cups water
Add leftover cabbage, corn, green beans, etc.
Add salt, pepper, and thyme to taste.
Thicken broth with flour.
Add ½ cup of macaroni in the last ½ hour of cooking.

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at meadow at overlook

Locations: Slumgullion Earthflow. Uncompahgre Peak. Windy Point Overlook.
Full Size ImageBeetle-killed trees on Slumgullion Summit  

Windy Point Overlook

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Head scarp of the Smulgullion Earthflow
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Interpretive panel at Windy Point Overlook
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Uncompahgre Peak in the San Juan Mountains
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Meadow below Windy Point Overlook
I Felt the Earth Move

A massive portion of Mesa Seco gave way about 850 Years ago. This resulted in the Slumgullion Earthflow, one of the most visible examples of “mass wasting” in the United States.

About 850 years ago, thousands of tons of water-saturated, earthen material broke away from Mesa Seco and slid nearly four miles into the valley below. The Slumgullion Earthflow dammed the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River and formed Lake San Cristobal -- the second largest natural lake in Colorado.

About 350 years ago, another portion of Mesa Seco began to slowly ooze down the hillside. Riding above the older slide, this flow covered about 2.5 miles of the older flow. Geologists estimate that it is still moving downhill approximately twenty feet per year.

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at Slumgullion Pass

Locations: Slumgullion Pass.
Full Size ImageSlumgullion Summit  

Slumgullion Summit

 

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at Spring Creek Pass

Locations: Spring Creek Pass.
Full Size ImageSpring Creek Pass, Continental Divide, 10,898 ft.  

Spring Creek Pass

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Lipman, Peter W., 2006.

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at FR 510

Locations: North Clear Creek Falls.  

North Clear Creek Falls

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North Clear Creek Falls
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View southwest from North Clear Creek Falls
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Clear Creek Graben
 

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at CR 18

Locations: Rio Grande River.
Full Size ImageThe Rio Grande River exits from the San Juan Mountains  

Rio Grande River

Drove out on Forest Road 520.21 to the bridge over the Rio Grande River.  

 

   

Tuesday, September 19th

 

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 Creede

Locations: Creede.
Full Size ImageThe Mac Mine, the only restaurant open for business on an off-season Tuesday morning  

Creede

Walked around Creede.
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The former D&RGW depot, now the history museum
 

 

Literature Cited:
- Steven, Thomas A., and Peter W. Lipman, 1976.

Locations: Creede.
Full Size ImageCreede Mining District  

Creede Mining District

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The Equity Mine
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Bachelor City
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Town of Creede
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Looking upstream toward sources of the Rio Grande River
Bachelor City

When gold and silver were discovered in the nearby mountains, these meadows at 10,500 feet in elevation became home to nearly 1,200 people. Between 1892 and 1896, this was the bustling community of Bachelor City. In January 1892, an eighty-acre town site was surveyed into twenty-four blocks with twelve streets. By March of 1892, nearly 100 ramshackle houses had been hastily constructed.

In its heyday, Bachelor City had a dozen saloons, four hotels, five grocery stores, a meat market, two barber shops, two bakeries, several restaurants, a school, a jail, city hall and a Catholic Church with a parsonage. Bachelor City had a doctor and a dentist and the town newspaper, the “Teller Topics.”

“The camp was a bustling one, and its citizens composed … of the rougher reckless types of Westerners, men who neither feared nor shunned danger, and to whom 'knockdown and dragout' fights were merely ordinary recreation. Brawls and pistol-play were a nightly occurrence in the numerous saloons and gambling dens that infested the place … the character of Bachelor remained tough.” -- Bachelor City - 1892

 

   

Wednesday, September 20th

 

 

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 at Wagon Wheel Gap

Locations: Goose Creek. Wagon Wheel Gap. Wagon Wheel Gap Hot Springs.
Full Size ImageLooking upstream from Wagon Wheel Gap  

Wagon Wheel Gap

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Interpretive panel for Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout at Wagon Wheel Gap
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Interpretive panel at Wagon Wheel Gap
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Interpretive panel at Wagon Wheel Gap
Wagon Wheel Gap -- The Early Years

In the early part of the twentieth century, railroad passengers, tourists, and health seekers boarded wagons at Wagon Wheel Gap and ventured to the Hot Springs Hotel to partake in the rejuvenating water.

The Denver and Rio Grande Railroad touted the healing qualities of the hot springs located near Wagon Wheel Gap. These springs soom became a destination for health seekers.

In December, 1848, John Fremont led an expedition into the San Juan Mountains to find a route for the transcontinental railroad. The ill-fated expedition may have traveled up Embargo Creek, (to the east of Wagon Wheel Gap), where they encountered a vicious winter storm. With ten feet of snow and deteriorating conditions, Fremont abandoned his expedition and each man fended for himself. All told, ten of Fremonts men died of cold or starvation in the San Juan Mountains.

In 1863, Charles Baker led a group of prospectors into the San Juan Mountains. While returning to New Mexico for the winter, then abandoned a damaged wagon near the “gap” where the Rio Grande carved a small canyon. In the 1870s, a wagon wheel was discovered in this area and it was believed to be a remnant from the Baker party. Miners referred to this area as “the gap where the wagon wheel was found.” Over time this area became known as Wagon Wheel Gap.

Wheeler Geologic Area was named in honor of George M. Wheeler, who surveyed much of Colorado in 1874. The area was designated a National Monument in 1908 by President Theodore Roosevelt in part to protect the highly erodible spires, hoodoos, and geologic formations. Due to its isolated location and diffifult access, the area was delisted as a National Monument in 1933. Wheeler Geologic Monument is now managed by the Rio Grande National Forest.

 

Literature Cited:
- Jessen, Kenneth, 2012.

Other articles: Colorado State Highway 149 in South Fork

Locations: South Fork.  

South Fork

Saw some railroad equipment south of the highway while coming into town
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Ex-Southern Pacific GE B30-7 7863 in South Fork, CO
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South Fork depot
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Locomotive No. 1
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Ex-Utah Central GE 44-ton locomotive
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Denver & Rio Grande … something, not quite a goose, maybe a mudhen.
 

 

Other articles: County Road 38A at CR 40G County Road 40G at end
Full Size ImageInterpretive panel for Penitente Canyon
Full Size ImageVirgin of Guadalupe in Penitente Canyon  

Penitente Canyon

The BGN gives no name for this canyon, which seems to carry a local name of “Penitente Canyon.”
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Virgin of Guadalupe in Penitente Canyon
Penitente Canyon: Special Recreation Management Area
A place of solitude ... a place of mystery .. a place with a spirit of its own ... Penitente Canyon
In the mid-1980s, rock climbers discovered the Penitente canyonlands. Today the BLM manages the area primarily for climbing, though mountain bikers, hikers and people drawn to its sense of peace and history also make their way to the canyons.
History

Ancestors of the Utes, Jicarilla Apaches and Puebloans have all left evidence of time spent hunting and camping here, along with explorers and trappers. The valley's first settlers were Hispanic farmers and sheepherders who migrated from northern New Mexico.

Virgin of Guadalupe

It's said that in the mid-20th century a few men from the local community painted the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe that's still visible today. Local legend has it that they sat in tires and were lowered over the cliff on ropes to complete the painting. The words above the Virgin read “Consuelo y Spiritu” or “Comfort and Spirit.”

Ecology

Penitente Canyon is home to many varieties of plants including chokecherry, wild rose, fringed sage and aspen; and wildlife including black bear, mountain lion, raptors, various lizards and prairie rattlesnakes.

Snakes

Always watch where you are stepping or reaching; don't reach where you can't see. If you encounter a snake, leave it alone and back away. Parents should always keep a close eye on their children in snake country.

Stay Safe

Safety is your responsibility. Know your limits and come prepared for the area's changing weather. All recreational activity is at your own risk.

 

   

Saturday, October 7th

Golden, CO, to Green River, UT

Other articles: Cisco Road at RR Xing Utah Highway 128 at Cisco Rd

Locations: Cisco.
Full Size ImageEast end of Cisco siding, near Cisco, Grand County, Utah.  

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Interpretive panel for the Dinosaur Diamond
 

Other articles: Utah Highway 128 near Dewey Bridge

Locations: Dewey.
Full Size ImagePoint of rocks along the Colorado River.  

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Highway 128 near Dewey, Colorado
Near Dewey Bridge.

Other articles: Utah Highway 128 near Richardson Amphitheater near Fisher Towers at Rocky Rapid

Locations: Fisher Towers. Rocky Rapids.
Full Size ImageLa Sal Mountains from the side of Highway 128  

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Fisher Towers from Utah Highway 128
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Unnamed butte near Rocky Rapids.
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Stand Up Paddleboards in Rocky Rapids.
Near and in the Richardson Amphitheater.

Other articles: US Highway 191 near Crescent Junction

Locations: Book Cliffs. La Sal Mountains.
Full Size ImageBook Cliffs near Crescent Junction.  

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The La Sal Mountains south of Crescent Junction.
Moab to Green River, Utah.

 

   

Sunday, October 8th

Green River, Utah, to Saint George, Utah.

Other articles: Utah Highway 24 near The Notch Utah Highway 95 in Hanksville

Locations: Hanksville. The Notch.
Full Size ImageHollow Mountain Gas Station  

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View across Well Draw in the direction of Capitol Reef and Boulder Mountain.
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Rocks near The Notch
Green River to Hanksville.

Other articles: Utah Highway 24 bet. Hanksville & Cainville
Full Size ImageCapitol Reef with Boulder Mountain in the background  

Capitol Reef.

Other articles: Utah Highway 24 in Capitol Reef NP
Full Size ImageCanyon in Capitol Reef National Park along Utah Highway 24
Full Size ImageCanyon in Capitol Reef National Park along Utah Highway 24  

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Canyon in Capitol Reef National Park along Utah Highway 24
in Capitol Reef National Park

Other articles: Utah Highway 24 at Capitol Reef Nat'l Pk

Locations: Capitol Reef National Park.
Full Size ImageNear Park Headquarters.  

Capitol Reef National Park Headquarters.

Other articles: Utah Highway 24 at Capitol Reef Nat'l Pk
Full Size ImageCliffs at Panorama Point
Full Size ImageSmall mesa near Panorama point.  

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Small mesa near Panorama point.
At Panorama Point.

 

Other articles: Utah Highway 12 at Larb Hollow Olook
Full Size ImageInterpretive panel at Larb Hollow Overlook.
Full Size ImageTurning aspens at Larb Hollow Overlook  

Larb Hollow Overlook

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View across Waterpocket Fold to San Rafael Desert

Early Explorers: Filling in the Blanks

Ellen Thompson, Expedition Botanist

Ellen Thompson, wife of A. H. Thompson and sister of John Wesley Powell, served as botanist on the sedond Powell Expedition. She collected hundreds of plants, many of them new to science. Several were named in her honor, including Thompson's Penstemon (Penstemon thompsoniae) and Thompson's Woolly Locoweed (Astragalus mollissimum var. thompsoniae). Mount Ellen, in the Henry Mountains, is also named for her.

“I never felt more exultant in my life ... I was looking on the most wonderful scenery I ever beheld.”

Andrus Expedition, 1866

“... as far as the Eye can see a naked barren plain of red and white Sandstone crossed in all directions by innumerable gorges ...” -- Franklin B. Woolley, Andrus Expedition, 1866.

Several years before the Powell Expedition, the Andrus military expedition patrolled the Aquarius Plateau region, providing the first written descriptions of this area.

Mapping the Last Uncharted Lands

By 1870, the continental United States had been mapped and surveyed, except for one area -- the vast region that surrounds you. From the Colorado River to the Aquarius Plateau, and from the Virgin River to the Green, this rugged landscape was uncharted territory.

Though the Fremont Expedition passed through Capitol Reef during the winter of 1853-54, they were desperately low on provisions and did not linger to survey the region. In 1872, John Wesley Powell launched his second expedition down thw Green and Colorado Rivers to chart the Rivers and surrounding lands. Over the next four years, his brother-in-law, Almon H. Thompson, led the land survey of southern Utah, during which he explored and charted Boulder Mountain and the rest of the Aquarius Plateau. The expedition also named and mapped the Escalante River and the Henry Mountains, respectively the last-mapped river and mountain range in the lower 48 states.

Other articles: Utah Highway 12 along highway
Full Size ImageTurning aspens on Boulder Mountain  

Wide spot in road

Other articles: Utah Highway 12 along highway
Full Size ImageView south from Boulder Mountain
Full Size ImageInterpretive panel  

Viewpoint, south slope of Boulder Mountain.

Lay of the Land: Across a Vast Horizon

“To a life that accepts Nature's hand in sculpting an individual expression – Nothing is exempt.

From the mellifluous rhythm and tome of the wid chime, to the transitional form of the cloud – Nothing exists alone.

All things thrive and whither in confluence with one another.

So it is; the paradox of our divinity.”

– Dave Buschow

Waterpocket Fold

The 100-mile-long Waterpocket Fold forms the backbone of Capitol Reef National Park. Here, geologic rock layers drape over a steeply dipping fault plane. Over millennia, water and wind have eroded the soft layers, sculpting the Waterpocket Fold's intricate contours. Along the Fold, water collects in sandstone basins, forming “waterpockets.”

Circle Cliffs

Within this section of Grand Staircase - Escalante National Monument lie huge petrified wood logs, some nearly 90 feet long. These rocks formed from trees that grew some 210 million years ago. The logs were buried in river sediments and became “petrified” as silica from volcanic ash gradually replaced organic cell tissue.

The Heart of the Escalante

“The Aquarius should be described in blank verse and illustrated upon canvas. The explorer who sits upon the brink of its parapet looking off into the southern and eastern haze, who skirts its lava cap or clambers up and down its vast ravines, who builds his camp fire by the borders of its snow-fed lakes or stretches himself beneath its giant pines and spruces, forgets that he is a geologist and feels himself a poet.”

– Clarence Dutton, 1880

The wild heart of the Escalante River drainage spreads before you – a labyrinth of canyons, mesas, and rolling slickrock. Remote peaks grace the horizon. On the far left lie the Henry Mountains, the last-named mountain range in the continental United States and home to one of the country's few free-roaming bison herds. Follow the horizon south, and you'll reach the rounded dome of Navajo Mountain on the Utah-Arizona border.

Other articles: Utah Highway 12 near Calf Creek

Locations: The Hogback.
Full Size ImageBoulder Creek below Utah Highway 12  

Utah Highway 12 traverses the New Home Bench and then the Hogback on the way to crossing Calf Creek.

Other articles: Utah Highway 12 in Escalante
Full Size ImageEscalante Outfitters, supplies and food
Full Size ImageWestern end of Escalante  

Lunch in Escalante at the Outfitters.

Other articles: Utah Highway 12 on UT Hwy12

Locations: Powell Point.
Full Size ImagePowell Point from Utah Highway 12 (2017)  

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Interpretive plaque on the Second Powell Expedition
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Interpretive plaque about the Kaiparowits Formation
Powell Point.

Second Powell Expedition: Charting New Territory

Powell Point Recollections

“We still keep Table Mountain (Pink Point) to our left … this singular mountain suggests a monster melon, sliced and standing on end. It is exactly the color of a ripe, red core; the pines that grow on ledges and benches, black specks at this distance, look like weeds.”

– Walter Clement Powell, member of the Second Powell Expedition of 1871, describing their ascent of the Blues Formation to the base of Powell Point.

The Topmost Stair

Powell Point reveals the topmost layer of the Colorado Plateau's Grand Staircase. This brilliantly colored layer, known as the Pink Cliffs or Claron Formation, is the same geologic layer that forms the spectacular, pinnacled landscape of Bryce Canyon National Park and Red Canyon, farther west on Highway 12.

Last Blank Spot on the Map

In 1871, this region was part of the last uncharted territory in the continental United States. That year, Major John Wesley Powell launched the Second Powell Expedition to explore and map this frontier, continuing the work he had begun three years earlier. Powell led the expedition safely through the wild waters of the Green and Colorado Rivers to the Paria River. He then instructed his brother-in-law Almon H. Thompson to lead the expedition overland to map what they called “the unknown country.” In 1872, expedition members climbed the slippery slopes of the badlands on which you now stand. Thompson then scaled the brilliant pink formation above you to view the surrounding country. Over the next four years, Thompson's explorations filled in this last blank spot on the U. S. map. In 1879, surveyor Clarence Dutton named this spectacular landmark “Powell Point,” in honor of Major Powell. Highway 12 now follows the 2nd Powell Expedition's exact route from Henrieville all the way to Head of the Rocks, east of Escalante.

Digging for Dinosaurs: Treasure in These Hills

Why Here?

The Kaiparowits Formation's stunning fossil record results from a perfect combination of circumstances. First, during the Late Cretaceous, this region was a lush, subtropical, coastal plain where an enormous number and variety of animals lived. Second, abundant rivers and coastal storms moved great volumes of sand and mud, so animals that died were sometimes buried quickly, preserving their remains. Lastly, uplifting of the Colorado Plateau over the past 60 million years has brought this deeply buried treasure to the surface.

Scientific Frontier

In a region famed for once being the last unmapped frontier in the continental United States, the Kaiparowits Formation remains a largely unexplored frontier. By protecting the fossils of this formation through proper collection and study, Grand Staircase - Escalante National Monument conserves a vast storehouse of knowledge available nowhere else on earth.

Kaiparowits Fossil Bonanza

There's treasure beneath your feet. Not of the gold-and-rubies variety, but rather a treasure of fossilized bones, eggshells, and other paleontological gems, buried in these gray rock formations some 73-77 million years ago. Known as the Kaiparowits Formation, these sedimentary rock layers lie at the top of what is perhaps the best and most continuous record of Late Cretaceous terrestrial life in the world.

Forty-foot long crocodiles, rhinoceros-like horned dinosaurs. tyrannosaurs, and velociraptors – all lived here. Scientists have surveyed only a small fraction of the Kaiparowits Formation, and have unearthed more than one hundred species of vertebrates. Excavations are revealing a long-lost ecosystem inhabited by a fantastic array of animals, including some of the earliest marsupial and placental mammals ever found. These disoveries are helping to explain the origins of our present world.

Other articles: Utah Highway 12 in Tropic
Full Size ImagePowell Point from the roadside near Tropic  

Stop near Tropic for a photo of Powell Point.
  Monday, October 9th.

Saint George, Utah, to Laguna Hills, California

  Tuesday, October 10th.

Laguna Hills, California

 

   

Wednesday, October 11th

Laguna Hills, California.

Other articles: Alta Laguna Boulevard Alta Laguna Park

Locations: Alta Laguna Park.
Full Size ImageView from Alta Laguna Park  

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Laguna Canyon, Laguna Beach, and the Pacific Ocean
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We're the Heckawii!
Drive to Laguna Beach, Alta Laguna Park, and Niks for dinner.

 

   

Thursday, October 12th

Laguna Hills to San Luis Obispo.

Other articles: U. S. Highway 101 at rest stop
Full Size ImageGaviota Rest Stop  

Drive to San Luis Obispo from Laguna Hills. Stopped for coffee in Oxnard, and at the rest stop in Gaviota Pass.

Locations: San Luis Obispo.
Full Size ImageHouse I lived in while attending Cal Poly
Full Size ImageMarket where I worked, formerly called the New Park Grocery  

Places in San Luis Obispo.

Locations: San Luis Obispo.
Full Size ImageLine for F. McLintocks barbeque at the Farmer's Market
Full Size ImageOne reason the SLO Farmer's Market was so pleasant  

San Luis Obispo Farmer's Market
  Friday, October 13th.

San Luis Obispo.

 

   

Saturday, October 14th

San Luis Obispo and San Luis Obispo High School 55th Year Reunion.

Locations: Port San Luis.
Full Size ImagePort San Luis after lunch  

Lunch in Port San Luis

Locations: San Luis Obispo.
Full Size ImageStill functional 50+ years later  

Dinner at the Madonna Inn.

 

   

Sunday, October 15th

San Luis Obispo, Atascadero, Paso Robles, and Duckies in Cayucos for late lunch/early dinner.

Other articles: California Highway 41 83900

Locations: Atascadero Pine Mountain Cemetery.
Full Size ImageGrave marker of Paul Schweich  

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View from Atascadero Cemetery
Atascadero Cemetery

Other articles: Adelaida Road at cemetery

Locations: Adelaida Cemetery.
Full Size ImageGrave marker in Adelaida Cemetery  

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Adelaida Cemetery
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Grave marker in Adelaida Cemetery
Adelaida Cemetery to find grave of Kathy Thompson.

 

   

Monday, October 16th

San Luis Obispo to Gualala, by way of Hayward and Alameda.

Full Size ImageGrave of Jacob Schweich  
Lone Tree Cemetery in Hayward.

Other articles: Fairview Avenue near Southwood
Full Size ImageThe Old House  

Drove by the ol' house and got a burrito at Taqueria Ramiro & Sons.

Other articles: California Highway 1 in Gualala

Locations: Gualala.
Full Size ImageEstuary of the Gualala River in Gualala  

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Schoenoplectus, perhaps S. californicus in the estuary of the Gualala River
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A sunset I was forced to watch in Gualala
Stayed the night in Gualala. The SurfsInn was a little disappointing.

 

   

Tuesday, October 17th

Gualala, California, to Gold Beach, Oregon.

Other articles: California Highway 1 in Fort Bragg

Locations: Fort Bragg.
Full Size ImageThe Emerald City out back of Egghead Omelettes Restaurant  

Breakfast at Egghead Omelettes Restaurant in Fort Bragg.

Other articles: Bald Hills Road at Lady Bird Johnson Grove

Locations: Lady Bird Johnson Grove.
Full Size ImageLooking up through the trees  

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Interpretive panel for “Saving the Redwoods”
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Backlit view of redwood forest.
Visit to Lady Bird Johnson Grove of redwoods.

Saving the Redwoods

As spectacular as these redwood forests are, their protection was slow to gain broader support.

One of the earliest organized efforts to save the redwoods was led by the Sempervirens Club. In 1902, they convinced the California legislature to appropriate funds for the purchase of the first state redwood park. Congressman William Kent also joined the effort. He personally bought and donated 295 acres of redwoods outside San Francisco to the federal government. His gift led to the creation of the Muir Woods National Monument in 1908.

Save the Redwoods League was founded in 1918 to purchase redwoods and convert the land to public trust. Numerous groves were protected and redwood state parks created through the League's efforts, including Del Norte Coast Redwoods, Jedediah Smith Redwoods, and Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parks.

A renewed effort to establish a national redwood park began in the early 1960s. These efforts were augmented in 1963 when a National Geographic survey team discovered several trees along Redwood Creek that were taller than any previously known. This discovery helped lead to the establishment of Redwood National Park in October of 1968.

Other articles: U. S. Highway 101 at Bandon

Locations: Bandon.
Full Size ImageTsunami Evacuation Map for Bandon, Oregon  

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Face Rock
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Location code for use in case of emergency
Face Rock State Park in Bandon, Oregon
  Wednesday, October 18th.

Gold Beach to Albany.

  Thursday, October 19th.

Albany, Oregon

  Friday, October 20th.

Albany, Oregon, to Boise, Idaho.

Other articles: US I-84 at Rooster Rock

Locations: Rooster Rock (historical).
Full Size ImageInterpretive panel at Rooster Rock State Park  

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Rooster Rock
Rooster Rock and State Park.

Lewis and Clark Expedition

Rooster Rock

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, the two great American explorers who made secure the claim of the United States for the Oregon country, passed along this stretch of the Columbia River with their Corps of Discovery on their way to the Pacific Ocean on October 31 -- November 2, 1805. They brought their boats through the “Great Shute” (now covered by the waters of Bonneville Dam) and recorded “a remarkable high detached rock stands in a bottom on the stard side ... [it is] 800 feet high and 400 paces around, we call [it] the beaten rock.” A later journal entry called it Beacon Rock.

The captains described “great numbers of sea otters” and “a high clift of black rocks” (Cape Horn) on the north shore. Clark wrote “here the river widens to near a mile, and the bottoms are more extensive and thickly timbered, as also the high mountains on each side ... passed a rock near the middle of the river, about 100 feet high and 80 feet diameter [Phoca Rock] ... we encamped under a high projecting rock on the lard [Rooster Rock].”

The expedition camped in this area April 6-9, 1806, on their return journey. They noted that Beacon Rock “may be esteemed the head of tidewater.”

 

   

Saturday, October 21st

Boise, Idaho, to Rock Creek, Wyoming.

Other articles: U. S. Highway 91 bet. Zenda and Red Rock Pass
Full Size ImageView south to Red Rock Pass
Full Size ImageLooking north towards Zenda (in the trees)  

Between Zenda and Red Rock Pass.

Other articles: U. S. Highway 91 Red Rock Pass

Locations: Red Rock Pass.
Full Size ImageHill with monument  

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Interpretive Panel for Red Rock Pass
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Interpretive Panel for Red Rock Pass
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Memorial plaque to Captain Jefferson Hunt
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View from top of hill

Red Rock Pass Geological Site

About 14,500 years ago, ancient Lake Bonneville overflowed at this site. A dam of alluvial fans between Oxford Mountain to the west and the Portneuf Range to the east suddenly eroded releasing Lake Bonneville from the Great Basin into the Snake River system. The Peak flow was about one million cubic meters per second at the pass, or about 500 times the maximum discharge on the Snake River at Idaho Falls, Idaho. Ancient “bathtub ring” shorelines up to 1,000 feet above the valley floor are readily visible in the Salt Lake Valley. Evidence of the flood is visible thoughout southern Idaho with areas of scoured bare bedrock (“scabland”) and deposits of boulders (“melon gravel”) marking the flood path. After about 11,000 years, Lake Bonneville receded to become the Great Salt Lake. Highly saline and only 40 feet deep, it is but a shadow of giant fresh-water Lake Bonneville.

Red Rock Pass is the geographic northern extremity of the Bonneville drainage basin, and was also designated by the early Latter-day Saint leaders as the northern edge of the proposed State of Deseret. North of here, water flows to the Snake, Salmon, and Columbia rivers, on the way to the Pacific Ocean, but south of here it flows into the Great Basin and the Great Salt Lake.

South of the monument in Red Rock Pass, the house-sized limestone blocks were jostled during the breakout of the Bonneville flood. The uneven topography northwest of the monument is a landslide which flowed into Red Rock Pass after it was deepened about 400 feet during the flood. Ancient cave formations are found in the flat-lying limestone of Red Rock Butte immediately north of the monument.

Red Rock Pass

You are standing in the outlet of ancient Lake Bonneville. A vast prehistoric inland sea, of which Salt Lake is a modern remnant.

Covering over 20,000 square miles when it overflowed here about 14,500 years ago, its winding shoreline would have stretched from here to New Orleans if it were straightened out. This pass was deepened considerably when Lake Bonneville began to slow into Snake River. For a time, a torrent several times larger than the Amazon was discharged here. Finally, with a hotter, drier climate that slowly emerged about 8,000 years ago, Lake Bonneville gradually disappeared.

No 119

Erected October 2, 1950

Captain Jefferson Hunt, Soldier, Pioneer, Churchman

Charles Jefferson Hunt served in the Mormon Battalion as captain of Company “A” and as assistant executive officer, in its historic march from Council Bluffs, Iowa to San Diego, California, 1846-47. His service won the commendation of all who served with him.

Under appointment by President Brigham Young in 1851, Captain Hunt was guide for the pioneers to San Bernardino, California. His pioneering service included also Provo, Parowan, and Huntsville (which bears hus name), in Utah, and Oxford, Idaho.

A convert to the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints he was loyal, obedient, and faithful to the end.

Erected by descendents of Captain Hunt and the Utah Pioneer Trails and Landmarks Association.

  Sunday, October 22nd.

Rock Creek, Wyoming, to Golden, Colorado.

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Date and time this article was prepared: 10/27/2017 8:34:33 PM