Front Range, Eastern Slope, Rocky Mountains Checklist Flora of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Golden and Vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado (Continued)  

Tom Schweich  

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Topics in this Article:
Introduction
Geography
History of Botanic Exploration
Useful Publications
Methods
Results
Discussion - Native Plants
Discussion - Non-Native Plants
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
Literature Cited
Appendices
 Golden, Colorado sits in a valley formed by erosion along the Golden fault, the geotectonic boundary between the North American Cordillera and the Great Plains. Somewhat like Mono Lake, for which I have also prepared a checklist flora, it sits at a boundary, or perhaps ecotone. Things are always more interesting at the boundaries. I started this project when I realized no such list had been prepared for my newly adopted city. I hope you find this checklist flora helpful. Please write to me if you have questions or comments.

 

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Colorado Department of Agriculture, 2014-2019.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notable Native Plants;  Non-Native Grasses in the Golden Landscape;  Golden s.l. noxious grasses;  Non-Native Mustards in the Golden Landscape;   Sunflowers;  

Discussion - Non-Native Plants

 
  About 158 taxa of plants found in Golden s.l. are non-native. This is roughly 30% of all taxa found here.
  In terms of the number of non-native taxa from each family, the greatest number are from the grass family (Poaceae). The top ten are listed in the Table below.

FamilyNativeNon-NativeTotal
Poaceae513082
Asteraceae9317111
Brassicaceae171835
Fabaceae23933
Polygonaceae12721
Chenopodiaceae4610
Caryophyllaceae9515
Boraginaceae10414
Lamiaceae8413
Solanaceae6410
  Three families, Poaceae, the “Grass family,” Brassicaceae, “the Mustard family,” and Asteraceae, the “Sunflower family,” account for about 40% of all non-native taxa in Golden s.l. This seems to be typical of the urban environment
 
“… just a few families contain a considerable portion of the species … Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Brassicaceae comprise 38.8% of species … this is typical of other non-native floras …” (Mosyakin and Yavorska, 2002)
  Some global studies have placed Fabaceae, the Pea family, in this group. Indeed, the Pea family is ranked fourth among families contributing non-native taxa to Golden s.l.
  The following discussion will first discuss the noxious weeds known from Golden s.l., then non-native grasses, mustards, and sunflowers, in that order.

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Non-Native Grasses in the Golden Landscape;  

Noxious Weeds

Thirty-five of the 158 non-native taxa are listed Colorado Noxious Weeds. The aim of the Noxious Weed program is to control noxious weeds, the non-native aggressive invaders that replace native vegetation, reduce agricultural productivity, cause wind and water erosion and pose an increased threat to communities from wildfire (Colorado Department of Agriculture, 2019).

   

List A

List A Species in Colorado that are designated by the [Colorado Department of Agriculture] Commissioner for eradication. The most common List A species in the Golden area is Euphorbia myrsinites L. (Syn: Tithymalus myrsinites (L.) Hill) Myrtle Spurge.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Fallopia japonica;

Area List: Golden.  

Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. “Japanese Knotweed”

One collection on the south bank of Clear Creek along 11th Street. There is a huge infestation at the northwest corner of CO Highway 58 and Washington Avenue. And a smaller infestation under treatment by the City of Golden in Kinney Run near the end of Tripp Drive.

No other collections in Jefferson County.

Native to the east coast of Asia. Introduced to North America and Europe.

Treated by IPNI as Reynoutria japonica Houtt. (Kew, 2022). Both of our Colorado floras accept F. japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. as does Flora of North America.

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Cheyenne Street:   near 5th;
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Non-Native Euphorbia;  Notes on Euphorbia myrsinites, Linnaeus, 1753;
• Gregory Drive:  30290;
• Kinney Run Trail:   at slope;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1779, 12 Apr 2018;   10 Mar 2019;
Full Size ImageInfestation of Myrtle Spurge between Gregory Drive and Goldco Circle.

Area List: Golden.  

Euphorbia myrsinites L. “Myrtle Spurge”

Euphorbia myrsinites L. Myrtle Spurge is ubiquitous in Golden s.l. Sprayed by either the City of Golden or Jefferson County Open Space where it is known to occur, it is often found in obscure or hidden places. It is also a common residential landscape plant. In the North Washington Open Space, previous mowing by the neighbors kept the plants small, but the species also spreads by small underground stems called rhizomes, thus allowing the plants to spread even if kept mowed.

Full Size Image
Myrtle Spurge as a treasured landscaping element.
Full Size Image
Habitat of Coll. No. 1779, Euphorbia myrsinites in Kinney Run.
On North Table Mountain, the plant is found at the tops and bottoms of the cliffs of the southwest side. I have found it hidden in off-trail locations in Kinney Run, and on Tin Cup Ridge. It is also found in Chimney Gulch and the Survey Field.

The first Colorado record for E. myrsinites is R. Jackson #3008, 25 June 1905, El Paso County, Austin Bluffs, vicinity of UCCS NE area of section; behind Forester house disturbed community, clay soil; grasses, dandelion, weeds. The first Jefferson County record was William Eisenlohr, s/n, 1 May 1977, William Eisenlohr

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lythrum salicaria;
Full Size ImagePaul Rothrock photo of Lythrum salicaria

Area List: Golden.  

Lythrum salicaria L. “Purple Loosetrife”

Lythrum salicaria L. Purple Loosetrife. There was one collection along Clear Creek on Miller-Coors property. Current status, such as persistent presence, is unknown.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Epilobium hirsutum;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2380, 12 Jul 2020;  23 Aug 2020;  Coll. No. 2685, 13 Aug 2021;

Locations: Deadman Gulch. Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2380, Epilobium hirsutum

Area List: Golden.  

Epilobium hirsutum L. “Hairy Willowherb”

Hairy willowherb (Epilobium hirsutum) is a perennial, semi-aquatic plant also known by the names “codlins and cream” and “European fireweed.” The plant grows up to 6 feet tall and can reproduce via seeds or rhizomes. Flowers are pink and 0.75 inches across with 4 notched petals, 4 sepals, and 8 stamens. They are arranged in racemes in the upper leaf axils. The seeds have tufts of long white hairs that are dispersed by the wind. The entire plant is covered with fine, soft hairs. There are more than 10 populations known in Colorado, including one at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space.

Hairy willowherb was first collected in Colorado 2003 by Stan Smookler and Linda Senser, nos. 230 and 239, 30 August 2003, at the Ward Road Ponds between 48th Avenue and the junction of I-70 and Ward Road, and at the nearby Mount Olivet Cemetery.

In Golden s.l., hairy willowherb has been collected in Kinney Run south of US Highway 6 to Deadman Gulch, then up Deadman Gulch to Eagle Ridge Drive. It has also been found in several places in Tucker Gulch between CO Highway 58 down to Clear Creek. It was found on top of North Table Mountain in 2021. Hairy willowherb is often found with the smaller native fringed willowherb (Epilobium ciliatum).

I was surprised to learn that a List A noxious weed in Colorado is considered endangered in Korea (Lee, 2017) where it is native.

Full Size Image
Hairy Willow Herb (Epilobium hirsutum) in Deadman Gulch.
Full Size Image
Hairy Willow Herb (Epilobium hirsutum) in Deadman Gulch.

Full Size ImageMax Lichter photograph of Arundo donax

Area List: Golden.  

Arundo donax L. “Giant Reed”

Arundo donax L. Giant Reed. In Colorado, this noxious grass is known from only one collection made near the Jefferson County Government Center. There is a report of the giant reed at Lowell Ponds State Wildlife Area. It is possible that it is undercollected, but if that were true, then one would expect at least a few other collections. In adjacent states, there are many collections from Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, with a fewcollections from Utah and Kansas.

   

List B

List B Species are species for which the Commissioner, in consultation with the state noxious weed advisory committee, local governments, and other interested parties, develops and implements state noxious weed management plans designed to stop the continued spread of these species. The following List B plants are found in Golden s.l.:

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Saponaria officinalis;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1983, 20 Jul 2018;
Full Size ImageSaponaria officinalis

Area List: Golden.  

Saponaria officinalis L. “Bouncingbet”

There is one collection from North Table Mountain along the former quarry road now forming part of North Table Loop. Several plants were found and removed along the social trail on the east side of the hill in the North Washington Open Space. Probably more widespread and undercollected, also seen as landscaping plant.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis ligusticifolia;  Notes on Clematis orientalis;
• Field Notes:  29 August 2020;
Full Size ImageClematis orientalis, a List B noxious weed on the fence beside the Clear Creek Trail.
Full Size ImageClematis orientalis in a tree beside Clear Creek.

Area List: Golden.  

Clematis orientalis L. “Oriental Virginsbower”

There are several collections around Golden, generally in waste places. There are several collections and observations around the Clear Creek Whitewater Park and the Golden Water Treatment Plant. In addition, there is a collection from South Table Mountain and the author has collected it in a partially filled-in open pit mine on Eagle Ridge. There, Clematis orientalis is found with the native C. ligustifolia, and wild hops, Humulus lupulus. The phenology of C. orientalis seems to be 3 to 4 weeks behind C. ligustifolia. It is distinguished from native Clematis by virtue of its yellow sepals.
Full Size Image
Loraine Yeatts Coll. No. 1073, Clematis orientalis
  “Although Clematis orientalis has been naturalized in the Rocky Mountains since the late nineteenth century, it has spread especially rapidly since ca. 1975, becoming weedy and, in some localities, constituting a threat to young trees and native shrubby and herbaceous species.” – James S. Pringle in FNANM.

Other articles:
• Kinney Run Trail:   at Coll. No. 1441;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1441, 15 Jun 2016;

Locations: Welch Ditch.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1441, Hesperis matronalis

Area List: Golden.  

Hesperis matronalis L. “Dame’s Rocket”

Seen in several places; one collection, at the pond on Deadman Gulch just west of US Hwy 6, was wiped out when dam was reconstructed. Was also collected along the former Welch Ditch at the mouth of Clear Creek Canyon.

Other articles:
• North Table Loop:   half-way;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1366, 24 May 2016;  Coll. No. 1874, 23 May 2018;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1366, Lepidium draba
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1874, Lepidium draba

Area List: Golden.  

Lepidium draba L. “White Top”

Widespread, often found on slopes overrun by smooth brome. Collected in 1940 in Golden (“fallow fields and roadsides”) more recently on Eagle Ridge, North Table Mountain, and Tin Cup Ridge.

Full Size ImageWeber & Randolph Coll. No. 17349, Lepidium latifolium

Area List: Golden.  

Lepidium latifolium L. “Broad-Leaved Pepper-Grass”

There is only one collection of Broad-Leaved Pepper-Grass — Lepidium latifolium L. — at a location described as “just west of Hwy 6 S of junction with Golden Road.” It is unfortunately quite unclear which road is “Golden Road.” and therefore where this plant might have been found in Golden. Otherwise it has been found primarily at Chatfield Farms, and scattered in valleys around Colorado. The author is familiar with the plant from the San Francisco Bay Area of California where the plant is quite problematic.

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Potentilla recta;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1680, 28 Jun 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1680, Potentilla recta

Area List: Golden.  

Potentilla recta L. “Sulphur Cinquefoil”

Sulfur cinquefoil is a perennial forb that is native to the eastern Mediterranean region of Eurasia. The first collection of sulfur cinquefoil in North America was made sometime before 1900 in Ontario. How and where it was introduced to North America is unknown. The first collection in Colorado was made June 15, 1948 by William A. Weber, 1 mile west of Valmont, Boulder County. In Golden, sulfur cinquefoil has been collected on South Table Mountain and in Apex Gulch. It was not collected by E. H. Brunquist in 1959-1960 so its introduction to Apex Gulch is recent. It is probably under collected, e.g., very common at Ranson/Edwards.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as being native to Italy and southern France, on the margins of agricultural fields, though today we think its native range is Mediterranean to Xinjiang and Iran.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Non-Native Euphorbia;  Notes on Euphorbia esula;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1657, 5 Jun 2017;  Coll. No. 1795, 27 Apr 2018;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1795, Euphorbia esula
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1657, Euphorbia esula

Area List: Golden.  

Euphorbia esula L. “Leafy Spurge”

Euphorbia esula L. or “Leafy Spurge” is common and widespread, though the number of collections might not show it. I think most collectors, myself included, just think, “Oh, leafy spurge” and move on looking for something interesting to collect. Around Golden s.l., the plant has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, on Dakota Ridge, and in Tucker Gulch.

Other Jefferson County collections are mostly around Bergen Park and at Chatfield Farms. Most Colorado collections are around the Rocky Mountain Front Range from Colorado Springs north, a few on the plains along the South Platte River, and scattered around the San Juan Mountains.

The sap contains diterpine esters in a milky latex that are toxic to humans. I wear disposable gloves when handling the plant.

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1437, 15 Jun 2016;   Coll. No. 1645, 30 May 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1645, Elaeagnus angustifolia

Area List: Golden.  

Elaeagnus angustifolia L. “Russian Olive”

The Russian Olive tree, native to Europe and Asia, was originally promoted by the federal government in the 1930s to control erosion in the Dust Bowls. It was also promoted as an ornamental. Unfortunately, it turned out that the trees take over river corridors and can completely cut off native species. Research has shown that they do not provide a habitat for cavity-dwelling birds, such as woodpeckers, bluebirds, tree swallows, and house wrens. In Golden there are many young and mature trees, in the North Washington Open Space, and the Foss property across North Ford Street. They have also been used as a landscape element in numerous locations, such as Altitude Apartments, and along Heritage Road.

The tree was first described by Linnaeus (1753), noting the the tree lived in Bohemia, Iberia, Syria and Cappadocia (eastern Turkey).

Jefferson County collections are along the Front Range in the metro Denver area. Otherwise, at the state, level the tree has been found throughout Colorado, except for the northwest.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1437, Elaeagnus angustifolia

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cynoglossum officinale;
• Field Notes:  Obs. No. 1552, 8 May 2017;   Coll. No. 1827.1, 16 May 2018;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1827.1, Cynoglossum officinale.

Area List: Golden.  

Cynoglossum officinale L. “Gypsyflower” or “Houndstongue”

Cynoglossum officinale L. “Gypsyflower” or “Hounds-tongue” has been found in almost every Golden s.l. open space. It is likely in every open space. It is usually well established, and often found off the beaten path. Most of the Jefferson County collections are in the more intensely-collected locations. The plant is distributed throughout most of Colorado, except for the eastern plains.

The first Jefferson County collection was by Doug Fambrough, #332, June 15, 1961, 1 mile east of Golden (BRYV0189599). The oldest Colorado collection was by Mrs. Orestes H. (Mary) St. John, on the north side of Raton Cañon, Las Animas County, April 1897.

The plant was described by Linnaeus (1753), as living in ruderal Europe.

Full Size Image
Obs. No. 1552, Cynoglossum officinale
Full Size Image
Obs. No. 1552, Cynoglossum officinale

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1206, 12 Jul 2015;  

Verbascum blattaria L. “Moth Mullein”

In Golden s.l., Verbascum blattaria L. or “Moth Mullein” has been collected only once, and that in the Colorado School of Mines Survey Field. There it was found growing with Common Mullein, or Verbascum thapsus L. Most of the collections in Colorado were made along the Front Range from Golden north to the vicinity of Loveland.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Linaria dalmatica;
• North Table Mountain Trail:  Near water tank;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1393, 8 Jun 2016;   Coll. No. 1641, 30 May 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1393, Linaria dalmatica
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1641, Linaria dalmatica

Area List: Golden.  

Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. “Dalmatian ToadFlax”

Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. (Syn: Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. ssp. dalmatica, Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. ssp. dalmatica (L.) Maire & Petitm.) Dalmatian ToadFlax. Ubiquitous, under collected.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dipsacus fullonum;
Full Size Image“Fuller's Teasel” at Tin Cup Ridge, Coll. No. 2677.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2677, Dipsacus fullonum

Area List: Golden.  

Dipsacus fullonum L. “Fuller's Teasel”

There are several collections of Dipsacus fullonum L. “Fuller's Teasel” in Golden s.l., and several observations. The older collections tend to be along road sides such as W. Colfax Street and CO Highway 58. More recent observations and collections have been more in the interior of the city, such as Tin Cup Ridge and Stonebridge HOA.

This Colorado Noxious List B weed was described by Linnaeus (1753) as being native to France, England, and Italy. As is typical with common or noxious weeds, there are few collections in Jefferson County, all from urban areas. Colorado collections, few that they are, are mostly along the Front Range. This weed is probably far more common than the number of collections would indicate. though there are two collections that are georeferenced within the broad sense of Golden.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dipsacus laciniatus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2412, Dipsacus laciniatus, imaged by COLO.

Area List: Golden.  

Dipsacus laciniatus L. “Cutleaf Teasel”

I think the more common teasel around Golden s.l. is Dipsacus laciniatus L. or “Cutleaf Teasel.” At a distance it is likely to be confused with the former, Dipsacus fullonum L. “Fuller's Teasel.” However, a quick examination of the leaves easily distinguishes between the two species. In Golden s.l., this List B noxious weed is widely distributed from Dakota Ridge in the north through North Washington Open Space and Kinney Run to Heritage Square in the south.

Colorado collections are mostly concentrated around the Denver-Boulder metropolitan area. Jefferson County collections are found in the Clear Creek hydrographic basin of the great plains.


Full Size ImageMax Lichter photograph of Acroptilon repens

Area List: Golden.  

Acroptilon repens (L.) DC. “Russian Knapweed”

Acroptilon repens (L.) DC. Russian Knapweed. Open field between ranches on north side of Table Mountain and Table Rock subdivision, status unknown.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1711, 14 Jul 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1711, Carduus nutans

Area List: Golden.  

Carduus nutans L. “Nodding Plumeless Thistle”

Carduus nutans L. (Syn: Carduus nutans L. ssp. macrolepis (Peterman) Kazmi) Nodding Plumeless Thistle. Widespread and common.

C. nutans has been collected in Kinney Run, at North Washington Open Space, and South Table Mountain. There are observations of the thistle from North Table Mountain and Tin Cup Ridge.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Centaurea diffusa;
• “Tilting Mesa Cut-Off”:   near saddle;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1233, 20 Jul 2015;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1233, Centaurea diffusa
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1233, Centaurea diffusa

Area List: Golden.  

Centaurea diffusa Lam. “White Knapweed”

Centaurea diffusa Lam. (Syn: Acosta diffusa (Lam.) Soja' k) White Knapweed, is widespread and common along the Front Range from Fort Collins south to Colorado Springs with a few collections in various locations around the state. It is possible that this distribution reflects collecting activity as much as actual distribution. In Golden, it has been collected on North Table Mountain and South Table Mountain, and observed on Dakota Ridge, Magic Mountain, and North Washington Open Space.

The first record of this plant in Colorado is 25 June 1905 in El Paso County, near the UCCS campus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Centaurea stoebe;

Area List: Golden.  

Centaurea stoebe L. “Spotted Knapweed”

There is one collection of Centaurea stoebe L. “Spotted Knapweed” along US Interstate 70 just outside the limits of Golden s.l. And there is just one other collection in Jefferson County. I suspect, though, that it may be more common than the number of collections might indicate.

Collections in Jefferson County have been annotated to C. maculosa Lam., though both Flora of North America and Plants of the World treat it as C. stoebe. The first record of this plant in Colorado is from Breen, La Plata County, 1 September 1960

Literature Cited:
- Duncan, Celestine and Melissa Brown Munson, 2018.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cirsium undulatum;
• Survey Field Road:  11000;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1200, Cirsium arvense

Area List: Golden.  

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. “Canada Thistle”

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Syn: Breea arvensis (L.) Lessing) Canada Thistle. Deep-rooted perennial weed that infests natural areas, pastures, rights-of-ways, seasonal wetlands, and cropland. Widespread and common. Probably native to southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. First introduced into North America in the early 1600s, probably as a contaminant in hay, crop seeds, and ship ballast. Best adpated to open sunny sites on well-drained, deep fine-textured soils. Clumps or patches from an extensive creeping root system. About four feet in height. Small flower heads that are either male or female (dioecious), with patches of a single sex often occurring. Once dispersed, each single-seeded fruitlet is able to establish either a male or female clone through vegetative propagation of its root system. Canada thistle root system may extend as much as 18 feet in one season, but individual roots live only for about 2 years. Typically sprayed when found. Some biological controls are available, though not particularly effective. Others are not imported to the United States due to possible non-target effects on native thistles.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1512, Cirsium arvense
Within Golden s.l., there are collections of Canada thistle from Colorado School of Mines Survey Field, South Table Mountain, and North Washington Open Space. It is expected to be found nearly everywhere within the city.

Area List: Golden.  

Onopordum acanthium L. “Scotch Cottonthistle”

This is a very large, very spiny thistle. In my own yard, one of these giant thistles grew in the middle of a patch of Yucca glauca at the corner of 5th Street and Arapahoe Street. I hacked it down without collecting it, so confirmation by collection is needed. I have also seen it at at Dakota Ridge and the corner of US Highway 6 and Heritage Road.

There are several collections from the intensively-collected localities in Jefferson County, such as Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. Most of the Colorado collections are centered around Denver, and along highway corridors.


Full Size ImageInflorescence of Coll. No. 1139, Aegilops cylindrica
Full Size ImageInflorescence of Coll. No. 1139, Aegilops cylindrica

Area List: Golden.  

Aegilops cylindrica Host. “Jointed Goat Grass”

Aegilops cylindrica Host. (Syn: Cylindropyrum cylindricum (Host) Á. Löve) Jointed Goat Grass is found mostly on the east slope and west slope in Colorado. In Golden, it has been collected in Mines Park (and observed in the Survey Field), North Table Mountain, North Washington Open Space, South Table Mountain, and Tin Cup Ridge.

   

List C

List C Species are species for which the Commissioner, in consultation with the state noxious weed advisory committee, local governments, and other interested parties, will develop and implement state noxious weed management plans designed to support the efforts of local governing bodies to facilitate more effective integrated weed management on private and public lands. The goal of such plans will not be to stop the continued spread of these species but to provide additional education, research, and biological control resources to jurisdictions that choose to require management of List C species. The following List C plants are found in Golden s.l.:

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Erodium cicutarium;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1790, 23 Apr 2018;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1790, Erodium cicutarium

Area List: Golden.  

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. ex Aiton “Redstem Stork's Bill”

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. Ex Aiton, Redstem Stork's Bill, is also a very common, ubiquitous weed, collected mostly on the east and west slopes of Colorado, though usually not on the eastern plains. Around Golden, it has been collected downtown, in the Survey Field, Dakota Ridge, Heritage Square, North Table mountain, North Washington Open Space, and South Table Mountain.

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cenchrus longispinus;  Notes on Tribulus terrestris;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 994;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 994, Tribulus terrestris

Area List: Golden.  

Tribulus terrestris L. “Puncture Vine”

Tribulus terrestris L. Puncture Vine. Is common and adventive. Most of the Colorado collections are in the metro Denver area and out on the plains. Within Golden, it has been seen in several places in town and in the surrounding open space. In particular, it has been collected at Heritage Square, and on North Table Mountain and South Table Mountain. The North Table Mountain collection (Schweich, #1547) was made beside the Golden Cliffs Trail, and the South Table Mountain collection (Yeatts, #804) was made in the middle of the road to Castle Rock. Both of these would seem to be recent introductions brought on hiker's boots or bicycle tires.

Described by Linnaeus (1753), who said, “Habitat in Europa australi ad semitas [She lives in southern Europe on footpaths].”

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Hypericum perforatum;
• “Tilting Mesa Cut-Off”:   at saddle;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1229, 20 Jul 2015;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1228, Hypericum perforatum
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1229, Hypericum perforatum

Area List: Golden.  

Hypericum perforatum L. “Common St. John's Wort”

Hypericum perforatum L. Common St. John's Wort. There are about 30 collections from Jefferson County. Most of the Colorado collections are from along the Front Range, including Ranson/Edwards and the Lipincott property. The only collection in Golden s.l. is from the top of North Table Mountain, and an observation made on Dakota Ridge. It is probably more common and widespread.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1436, 15 Jun 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1436, Conium maculatum

Area List: Golden.  

Conium maculatum L. “Common Poison Hemlock”

Conium maculatum L. Common Poison Hemlock. Common and widespread in wet areas; adventive in gardens. Collected along Clear Creek, in the Survey Field, Heritage Square, and North and South Table Mountains.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Evolvulus nuttallianus;
• Plainview Road:   near coll loc west;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1220, 16 Jul 2015;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1220, Convolvulus arvensis
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1220, Convolvulus arvensis

Area List: Golden.  

Convolvulus arvensis L. “Field Bindweed”

Convolvulus arvensis L. Field Bindweed. Very common, ubiquitous weed, although not often collected.

In my garden I have a protocol to remove bindweed. It is pretty labor intensive, but it seems to work. When I find bindweed, I pull and dig it out as much as possible. Then I water and watch the spot. If any bindweed comes up again, I drench it with glyphosate. I may have to do this four or five times. This works for a small area. I don't know what could be done with a large field.

I will say this, though, field bindweed really makes a good looking voucher.

Other articles:
• North Table Loop:   at Neighborhood Access Trl;
• Field Notes:   2-Aug-07;
Full Size ImageDense colonies of Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) in Cottonwood Canyon
Full Size ImageCollection No. 512, Verbascum thapsus

Area List: Golden.  

Verbascum thapsus L. “Common Mullein”

Verbascum thapsus L. Common Mullein. Ubitquitous, forms large dense colonies, frequently adventive in city gardens. Collected in Golden at Apex Gulch and South Table Mountain. Observed on Dakota Ridge, Magic Mountain, North Table Mountain, and North Washington Open Space. Like many noxious weeds, often overlooked and under-collected.

Full Size ImageColl. No. 2425, Arctium minus.

Area List: Golden.  

Arctium minus Bernh. “Lesser Burdock”

Arctium minus Bernh. Lesser Burdock. Known mostly from the Front Range, but also scattered across the western portion of the state. Collected at Heritage Square and in Deadman Gulch/Kinney Run. Observed in Deadman Gulch on Stonebridge HOA property.

Other articles:
• Plainview Road:   near coll loc west;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1223, 16 Jul 2015;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1223, Cichorium intybus

Area List: Golden.  

Cichorium intybus L. “Chicory”

Cichorium intybus L. Chicory. In Colorado, occurs mostly at lower elevations on east and west slopes. Appears only on a list of observations for North Table Mountain, probably undercollected, as there are several collections from Rocky Flats and from Chatfield, two places that have been extensively collected.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Bromus japonicus;
• Rubey Drive:   at turn;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1112, 26 May 2015;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1112, Bromus tectorum

Area List: Golden.  

Bromus tectorum L. “Cheat Grass”

Bromus tectorum L. (Syn: B. tectorum L. var. glabratus Spenn.) Cheat Grass. Ubiquitous, adventive in urban gardens.

Full Size ImageJanet Wingate collection of Elymus repens

Area List: Golden.  

Elymus repens (L.) Gould. “Quack Grass”

Elymus repens (L.) Gould. (Syn: Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex B. D. Jacks. ) Quack Grass. One collection, Golden location doubtful.

Full Size ImageDorothy Borland collection of Panicum miliaceum

Area List: Golden.  

Panicum miliaceum L. “Proso Millet”

Panicum miliaceum L. Proso Millet. The noxious weed sheets distinguish between wild proso millet and domestic proso millet. The only way to distinguish between wild proso millet and domestic proso millet is seed color. Typically, domestic proso millet has white, yellow, light brown, or red seeds. Wild proso millet apparently has black seeds, although some sources mention black seeds on domestic proso millet. I think the real difference between wild and domestic proso millet is the location at which it is found. If it's in a farmer's field, it is domestic proso millet, but if it is in another place we don't want it, then it is wild proso millet. This is a grain crop with many different common names, such as proso millet, broomcorn millet, common millet, hog millet, Kashfi millet, red millet, and white millet. About 250,000 acres are planted with proso millet in Colorado, mostly on the northeast plains. It is an annual grsss that is native to Asia or middle Europe. Known only from Lookout Mountain.

Other articles:
• Tucker Gulch Trail:   above 1st St;   near 1st;
• Field Notes:   10 Aug 2014;  Coll. No. 1114, 26 May 2015;   Coll. No. 1651, 1 Jun 2017;

Locations: Colorado School of Mines Survey Field. Tucker Gulch (lower).
Full Size ImageTucker Gulch, north from First Street

Area List: Golden.  

Poa bulbosa L. “Bulbous Bluegrass”

Widespread. Collected and seen in multiple places along the North Table Loop, especially on the lower slopes of North Table Mountain. It is quite dense in Tucker Gulch near the First Street bridge (Schweich #1114). Collected by Janet L. Wingate at the former intersection of US Highway 6 and Tripp Road. This is likely near the undercrossing of US Highway 6 by the Kinney Run Trail. Also seen along an elk trail in the southern end of the Survey Field.
Full Size Image
Florets of Coll. No. 1114, Poa bulbosa.
Full Size Image
Inflorescence of Coll. No. 1114, Poa bulbosa.

   

Watch List

Watch List Species that have been determined to pose a potential threat to the agricultural productivity and environmental values of the lands of the state. The Watch List is intended to serve advisory and educational purposes only. Its purpose is to encourage the identification and reporting of these species to the Commissioner in order to facilitate the collection of information to assist the Commissioner in determining which species should be designated as noxious weeds. There are two plants in Golden s.l. that are on the Watch List:

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Alliaria petiolata;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2481, Alliaria petiolata

Area List: Golden.  

Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande “Garlic Mustard”

Unknown in Golden s.l. until its presence was reported by Cindy Trujillo, Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande “Garlic Mustard” has been collected only in Tucker Gulch between 1st Street and 7th Place. There are no other collections in Jefferson County. Other Colorado collections are in Coloeado Springs and vicinity, Cherry Creek in Denver, and one in Boulder.

Full Size ImageStanley Smookler collection of Carthamus lanatus

Area List: Golden.  

Carthamus lanatus L. “Wooly Distaff Thistle”

Known from one collection along Lubahn Trail, base of South Table Mountain.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gypsophila elegans;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1710, 14 Jul 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1710, Gypsophila paniculata

Area List: Golden.  

Gypsophila paniculata L. “Baby's Breath”

North Washington Open Space. Baby's breath is an ornamental species that has escaped cultivation. Once established, it can form dense stands and is difficult to control. In pastures and rangeland, it competes with forage species and decreases hay forage quality. There is only one other collection from Jefferson County, Colorado.

Literature Cited:
- Mosyakin, Sergei L., and Oksana G. Yavorska, 2002.  

... just a few families contain a considerable portion of the species ... Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Brassicaceae comprise 38.8% of species ... this is typical of other non-native floras … (Mosyakin and Yavorska, 2002)

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notable Non-Native Plants;  Noxious Weeds;  

Non-Native Grasses in the Golden Landscape.

There are 29 species of alien grasses that have been collected in Golden s.l.. Six of those grasses are listed Colorado noxious weeds. Noxious weeds are discussed under “Noxious Weeds,” above.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notable Non-Native Plants;  

Colorado Noxious Weed List A:

Colorado Noxious Weed List B:

Colorado Noxious Weed List C:

  The other 24 non-native grasses in Golden are not listed noxious weeds. Unlisted non-native grasses:

That does not mean the grasses have no impact on native vegetation. What are these grasses? How did these grasses get to Golden?

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  smooth brome;  

Some of these grasses came to Colorado as weeds, perhaps in the hooves of animals. Others, though, were planted intentionally, as part of an attempt to improve rangelands. Here are two ways that non-native grasses are currently being introduced to the Golden landscape.

First, The City of Golden publishes revegetation requirements (Golden,2019) these guidelines list several mixes from seed companies, such as Arkansas Valley Seeds, Pawnee Buttes Seed Company, and Western Native Seed. The names of the grasses are all common names, so identifying the actual seed to be used can be unclear. Some of the grasses in these mixes are native, or cultivars of grasses that may be native. Some are native to Colorado, but clearly not native to Golden. For example, the Rocky Mountain Native Mix from Arkansas Valley Seeds contains Mountain Brome “Bromar.” This is clearly not native to Golden. Rocky Mountain Fescue “Native” is also suspect. Galleta Grass “Viva” is very unlikely to be native to Golden.

Second, Echters' “Dryland Pasture Mix” is described as being great for meadows and for erosion control. It can be used to reseed meadows and wildlife areas. The grasses are heat and cold tolerant, palatable and provide good nutrition for livestock and wildlife. It is said to be drought tolerant. The mix has changed through in the last few years since I first noticed it. The current (2019) mix contains six alien grasses, as follows:

20%Tall Fescue
20%Annual Rye
20%Wheatgrass
20%Festulolium
10%Smooth Brome
10%Orchard Grass

Since common names are used on the grass mix label, it can be difficult to tell what grasses are really being planted. “Tall Fescue” is most likely Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. (Syn: Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire) is a cool-season perennial C3 species of bunchgrass native to Europe. It is an important forage grass throughout Europe, and many cultivars have been used in agriculture. It is also an ornamental grass in gardens, and a phytoremediation plant (Wikipedia, 2019). As discussed below, the SEINet taxon tree treats Schedonorus a. as a distinct taxon from Festuca a. and Lolium a..

Annual Rye grass appears to be Lolium multiflorum Lam. There are no collections of L. multiflorum in Golden s.l. or nearby and it will not be discussed further.

“Wheatgrass” could be Pascopyrum or Thinopyrum, or possibly Elymus. The most common of those grasses around Golden is Intermediate Wheatgrass Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D. R. Dewey and this is probably what is in the mix. T. intermedium is discussed further below as an alien grass that is common in the Golden s. l. area.

Festulolium, c.f., F. braunii K.A. is a hybrid cross between the Festuca and Lolium species. The agronomic benefits of festulolium started to gain acceptance in the late 1950’s with demand steadily increasing over the years. Festulolium is mainly utilized in pastures for grazing and stockpiling, either in mixes or pure stands. Silage and green chop are other major uses. Benefits include higher forage yields than perennial ryegrass, forage quality similar to perennial ryegrass, increased mid summer growth compared to other cool season grasses, high disease resistance, winterhardiness and persistence. There are a few older collections of grasses determined some species of Festulolium online in SEINet, but it is unclear whether those are the F. braunii hybrid or an older use of Festulolium as a genus name.

“Smooth Brome” is most likely Bromus inermis Leyss. This alien grass is ubiquitous in Golden s. l. and discussed in more detail below.

“Orchard Grass” is Dactylis glomerata L. The alien Orchard Grass is also very common in Golden s. l. and also discussed in more detail below.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Agropyron cristatum;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 821;  Coll. No. 1856, 18 May 2018;

Locations: North Washington Open Space.
Full Size ImageMy collection of Agropyron cristatum at Denver Botanic Gardens

Area List: Golden.  

Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. “Crested Wheat Grass”

There are collections of Crested Wheat Grass from North and South Table Mountains and from the North Washington Open Space. The grass is commonly collected throughout Colorado, except at the higher altitudes. Crested Wheat Grass is often used in “range improvement” projects and is found throughout the Cordilleran West. It is likely undercollected because it is so common.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 821, Agropyron cristatum, "Crested Wheat Grass"
  City of Golden categorizes Crested Wheat Grass as an invasive, non-native grass to avoid for revegetation (Golden, 2019).

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1225, 16 Jul 2015;
Full Size ImageE. H. Brunquist collection of Agrostis gigantea
Full Size ImageMy collection of Agrostis gigantea from Ranson/Edwards.

Area List: Golden.  

Agrostis gigantea Roth. “Redtop”

There are two collections of Redtop, one from from the top of North Table Mountain, and the other likely from the Magic Mountain Archeological Site. Outside of Golden s.l. there are several collections of the grass ranging from Rocky Flats in the north to Chatfield in the south of Jefferson County. The author has collected it at Ranson/Edwards.

Other articles:
• Tucker Gulch Trail:   above First;   near 1st;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2274.1, 12 May 2020;
Full Size ImageSchweich collection of Alopecurus arundinaceus
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2274.1, Alopecurus arundinaceus.

Area List: Golden.  

Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir. “Creeping Reed Foxtail”

The genus Alopecurus consists of about 50 species distributed throughout the Temperate and Arctic Zones of the Northern Hemisphere The name, Alopecurus, is derived form the Greek words Alopex meaning fox, and oura meaning tail, referring to the characteristic cylindrical panicle.

There is considerable variation in application of common names to Alopecurus arundinaceus; a typical problem with common names. Shaw (2008) and Ackerfield (2015) apply Creeping Meadow Foxtail. Welsh, et al. (1993) use Creeping Foxtail. Monsen, et al. (2004) apply Creeping Foxtail and Reed Foxtail as common names. The creeping adjective is germane because A. arundinaceus is is rhizomatous, whereas the very similar A. pratensis is non-rhizomatous. Meadow Foxtail is a literal translation of Alopecurus pratensis and is the common name typically applied to that taxon. So dropping Meadow from the common name of A. arundinaceus would be a good idea would reduce confusion of the two grasses. The specific arundinaceus is from Latin and means "like a reed," from arundo, arundinis, "reed." Therefore, Reed Foxtail would seem like the best common name, with perhaps the adjective Creeping added to acknowledge the rhizomatous nature of the grass.

Regardless of the common name, A. arundinaceus is widespread in Europe and temperate Asia. It was introduced in the United States in 1935, and is now naturalized in the Great Plains, Pacific Northwest, and Intermountain regions. It is commonly seeded as pasture and a hay crop in wet meadows and has spread along waterways and moist drainages.

The sole collection of this grass in Golden s. l. was made in Tucker Gulch, just north of the First Street bridge. There are six other collections (SEINet, 20 Oct 2019) made in Jefferson County, mostly from the Chatfield area and the Majestic View Nature Center.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1930.2, 8 Jun 2018;
Full Size ImageSchweich collection of Alopecurus geniculatus

Area List: Golden.  

Alopecurus geniculatus L. “Water Foxtail”

These are several collections from North Table Mountain in the area of an ephemeral pond that has been enhanced with a small rock dam. Water foxtail is a small annual grass collected occasionally in wetlands or drying wetands in central Colorado.

There is a similar foxtail grass A. carolinianus that is an annual and distinguished from A. geniculatus by its smaller anthers. I have collected A. carolinianus at Ranson/Edwards and Lippincott Ranch, north of and higher than Golden.

 

Literature Cited:
- Beauvois, Palisot de, 1812.
- Linnaeus, Carl, 1759.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Apera interrupta;

Area List: Golden.  

Apera interrupta (L.) Beauv. “Italian Windgrass”

One Golden s.l. collection from the northeast corner in Apex Park. Also collected at Rocky Flats, the only other Jefferson County collection. Otherwise there are just two other collections in Colorado, one from Plum Creek in Douglas County, and the other from the Arikaree River in Yuma County.

Described as Agrostis interrupta by Linnaeus (1759), then placed in Apera by de Beauvois (1812).

Native range to Europe to western Pakistan, and northwestern Africa.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Arrhenatherum elatius;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2442, Arrhenatherum elatius

Area List: Golden.  

Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P. Beauv. ex J. Presl & C. Presl. “Tall Oatgrass”

Collected by the author in the streambed of Deadman Gulch, “Tall Oatgrass” — Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P. Beauv. ex J. Presl & C. Presl. — is a recent addition to the Golden s.l. flora. There is one other collection in Jefferson County at the Majestic View Nature Center. Most collections in Colorado are around the urban centers of the Front Range, with a few scattered collections in the interior valleys.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Bromus briziformis;

Area List: Golden.  

Bromus briziformis Fisch. & C. A. Mey. “Rattlesnake Brome”

One observation in Golden s.l. on Tin Cup Ridge by the author. Other collections in Jefferson County are at Rocky Flats and Lippincott Ranch. Most Colorado state collections are in the urban areas along the Front Range.

Described in 1837 by Fischer and C. A. Meyer, though I am unable to find the reference.

Native to Caucasus to Iran.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Shaw, Robert B., 2008.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn. “California Brome”

Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn. (Syn: Ceratochloa carinata (Hook. & Arn.) Tutin) has a common name of “California brome,” or occasionally “Mountain brome.” It is considered to be native to Colorado by Ackerfield (2015) and Shaw (2008), but alien by Weber & Wittmann (2012), who also write, “A species consisting of a number of infertile races, introduced for range revegetation.”

Other articles:
• Field Notes:   28 Apr 2018;

Locations: North Washington Open Space.
Full Size ImageConstruction damage and debris.

Area List: Golden.  

The construction of the condominiums at 410-416 North Ford Street bled over into the North Washington Open Space. The soil was disturbed, construction debris was dumped, and construction equipment was stored on the city-owned parcel. At completion of construction the construction debris and equipment was removed. The disturbed area was covered with a jute mat, and the area seeded. By my collection (Schweich, #2090), the primary species seeded was Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn. “California brome.” The seed mix also contained Triticum aestivum L. “Wheat” as several specimens of that taxon were collected (Schweich, #2089) with the California brome.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2089, Triticum aestivum
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2090, Bromus carinatus

Literature Cited:
- Arkansas Valley Seeds, 2019.
- Golden, City of, 2019.  

The City of Golden Revegetation Requirements (Golden, 2019) permit use of Mountain Brome “Bromar,” i.e., California brome, in a mix of permanent revegetaion seed. “Bromar” is a selection made in 1933 at the Washington State University Agricultural Experiment Station, in Pullman, Washington. It was released in 1946. The specific mix called out is “Rocky Mountain Native Mix from Arkansas Valley Seeds.” The mix contains 20% California Brome in addition to 8 other grasses (Arkansas Valley Seeds, 2019). The technical specification sheet does not specify the cultivar names of any of the grasses used.

If the preferred mix was applied, then other grasses such as Slender Wheatgrass, Blue Grama, Idaho Fescue, Buffalograss, Green Needlegrass, and Indian Ricegrass should have also been present. However, none of these were seen. Therefore, it would appear that primarily California Brome was applied.

  California Brome is not known from Golden s.l. The closest recent collection is by Janet L. Wingate (#2407, 19 Jun 1983, KHD21846) in a disturbed area at edge of dressage arena, Table Mountain Ranch, 19000 W 58th Ave., Golden. This location is just outside the present definition of Golden s.l. Otherwise, there are no historic or recent collections of this grass made in Golden s.l. (SEINet, 2019). Especially, there were no collections of B. carinatus when the Magic Mountain area was extensively collected by E. H. Brunquist in 1959-1960, nor were there any collections from South Table Mountain when that mesa was collected by Loraine Yeatts in 1983-1984. The closest old collection is an early 20th century collection from Mount Morrison (Bethel & Clokey #3998, 3 Jun 1921: CM234168, IND27631, RM88139 & UTC22795).
  Therefore, I think it is fair to say that the planting of California brome as construction remediation represents introduction of an alien grass to Golden s.l., if not to Colorado. It was not necessary to introduce the alien grass as there are numerous native grasses already growing in the North Washington Open Space that are easy to obtain and grow from seed. These would include Little Bluestem, Blue Grama, Buffalo Grass, Sand Dropseed, Needle and Thread, and Green Needlegrass.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  dryland pasture mix;  

Bromus inermis Leyss. “Smooth Brome”

 
  If I were a dryland cattle rancher, I would plant smooth brome. It greens up early, but can survive periods of drought and extremes in temperature. It is highly palatable and is high in protein content and relatively low in crude-fiber content. It is deep-rooted and spreads by rhizomes in addition to seed. It is compatible with alfalfa or other adapted legumes.
  On the other hand, if I were a prairie restoration ecologist, I would go around shooting dryland cattle ranchers who planted smooth brome.

Literature Cited:
- Global Invasive Species Database, 2019.

Other articles:
• Plainview Road:   near coll loc west;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1660, 16 Jun 2017;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1219, Bromus inermis

Area List: Golden.  

Bromus inermis is a highly competitive C3 grass that forms a dense sod, resulting in smothering and exclusion of other (native) species and decreasing natural biodiversity (ANHP, 2002; Oftinowski et al., 2007). ANHP (2002) writes that \"Smooth brome may inhibit natural succession processes…and [serves as an] alternate host for viral diseases of crops.\" Anemone patens, a long lived native perennial in North American grasslands, is negatively affected by the presence of B. inermis. The thatch left by previous B. inermis growth creates an issue for survival and germination of A. patens seeds (Williams & Crone, 2006). B. inermis has also shown to alter the population dynamics of the dominant native perennial prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). When B. inermis grows in conjunction with native S. pectinata is known to reduce patch growth, decrease colonization rates and increase extinction rates of the native species (Dillemuth et al., 2009). B. inermis is also known to significantly impact the population dynamics and movement behaviour of several native arthropod species in North American prairies (Baum et al., 2004; Cronin 2003a, b, 2007; Cronin & Haynes 2004; Cronin et al., 2004; Haynes & Cronin 2003).
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1660, Bromus inermis

Literature Cited:
- Bahm, Matt A., Thomas G. Barnes, and Kent C. Jensen, 2011.  

 

Literature Cited:
- Sovell, John, Pam Smith, Denise Culver, Susan Panjabi and Joe Stevens, 2012.  

Smooth brome is considered to be an invasive species in at least ten other states (MN, OH, IN, IL, KY, TN, NB, WI, ND and MS), by Invasives.org and The Nature Conservancy. In Colorado, smooth brome is available for use in seed mixes used by ranchers, homeowners, and highway departments which is why it is not listed as an invasive species.

The City of Golden designates smooth brome an invasive, non-native grass to avoid for revegetation (Golden, 2019).

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Bromus tectorum;
• Plainview Road:   near coll loc;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1461, 27 Jun 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1461, Bromus japonicus

Area List: Golden.  

Bromus japonicus Thumb. “Japanese Brome”

While B. japonicus and B. tectorum are superficially similar and often found growing together, they are probably not that closely related, as B. japonicus is placed in section Bromus, and B. tectorum in section Genea.

B. japonicus is not a noxious weed in Colorado, whereas B. tectorum is, and is discussed with the noxious weeds above.

Area List: Golden.  

Bromus racemosus L. “Bald Brome”

The collection of B. racemosus, collected at Heritage Square, has been annotated B, japonicus by Janet Wingate (2019).

Other articles:
• Rubey Drive:   at turn;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1111, 26 May 2015;  Coll. No. 1389, 1 Jun 2016;
Full Size ImageSchweich collection of Dactylis glomerata

Area List: Golden.  

Dactylis glomerata L. “Orchard Grass”

Orchardgrass was introduced to the eastern United States from Europe in 1760. It is widely planted in the United States and Canada, and is found from Nova Scotia south to the Carolinas, west to central California, and north to coastal British Columbia. It was one of the first grasses I collected in Alameda, California.

There are two collections of Orchard Grass from Golden s. l., both made by the author. In addition, three observations from different locations, show Orchard Grass to be widespread in Golden s. l. Despite its ubiquity, Orchard Grass is not considered a particularly invasive species when compared to other exotic perennial grasses, e.g., Holcus lanatus, Festuca arundinacea, or Phalaris aquatica (or Bromus inermis, I might add).

Often planted for range improvement or revegetation, but considered an invasive, non-native grass to avoid for revegetation (Golden, 2019).

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.
- Scopoli, Giovanni Antonio, 1772.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Digitaria sanguinalis;

Area List: Golden.  

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. “Red-hair Crab-grass”

One collection on South Table Mountain. Found in other place on the plains of Jefferson County, mostly in what might be considered “waste places.” Colorado state collections are mostly in the urban areas of the Front Range, with a few scattered collections out on the plains and on the western slope.

First published as Panicum sanguinale Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 57), then placed in Digitaria as D. sanguinalis Scopoli (1772).

Area List: Golden.  

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. “Barnyard Grass”

Seen at Heritage Square and North and South Table Mountains. Until recently, most collections of Echinochloa were determined E. crus-galli. Then Ackerfield (2015) introduced a new character to examine in her key, i.e., were the setae on sterile lemmas pustular at the base or not? If true, then the grass was more likely E. muricata. Examination of this character led several collections determined E. crus-galli to be annotated to E. muricata.

The basionym for E. crus-galli is Panicum crus-galli L. and occasionally “millet” is included in the common nane for Barnyard Grass.

Other articles:
• Canyon Point Circle:   at t. h.;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1296, 9 Sep 2015;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1296, Echinochloa muricata var. microstachya

Area List: Golden.  

Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald var. microstachya Wiegand. “Rough Barnyard Grass”

Collected in Golden in 1895, more recently on South Table Mountain and at the Nightbird Gulch Trailhead.

Shaw (2008) and Ackerfield (2015) accept var. microstachya, whereas Weber&Wittman (2012) do not.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eragrostis cilianensis;
• Quaker Street:  49300;
Full Size ImageWingate collection of Eragrostis cilianensis

Area List: Golden.  

Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignolo ex Janch. “Stinkgrass”

There are three collections of this easily recognizable grass in Golden s.l. One collection was made on a disturbed roadside of South Table Mountain; another other at DeLong Park, and the third in the alley behind my house.. It was not clear, though, whether the grass was adventive at the park, or whether it was introduced in a soil amendment, or as a contaminant in the hydroseeding. Ten other collections in Jefferson County, often on disturbed ground.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1947, 15 Jun 2018;
Full Size ImageMy collection of Festuca idahoensis
Full Size ImageMy collection of Festuca idahoensis

Area List: Golden.  

Festuca idahoensis Elmer “Idaho Fescue”

The only Golden collections of F. idahoensis, indeed the only collections from Jefferson County, were made in the North Washington Open Space, where it was planted as a revegetation project. Both F. idahoensis and the next F. saximontana are members of the Festuca ovina “complex, a grouping of the fine-leaved, non-rhizomatous Festucas. The City of Golden considers F. ovina to be an invasive non-native grass that is to be avoided for revegetation projects (Golden, 2019).

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1853, 18 May 2018;
Full Size ImageMy collection of Festuca saximontana

Area List: Golden.  

Festuca saximontana Rydb. “Rocky Mountain Fescue”

Collected in Golden only at the North Washington Open Space where it was planted as a revegetation grass. Has also been observed in Kinney Run, collection and verification needed.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2087, 17 Jun 2019;
Full Size ImageWingate collection of Hordeum murinum
Full Size ImageCiliate glumes of Coll. No. 2087, Hordeum murinum

Area List: Golden.  

Hordeum murinum L. “Mouse Barley”

Seen on North Table Mountain and collected on South Table Mountain; collected by the author at Lippincott Ranch.

Area List: Golden.  

Hordeum vulgare L. “Common Barley”

Known from only one collection north of Golden. Possibly planted or perhaps fell off the hay truck.

Area List: Golden.  

Lagurus ovatus L. “Hares Tail Grass”

Known from only one collection, on roadside of 32nd Avenue, near the Rolling Hills Golf Club, south of Golden.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Phleum pratense;

Area List: Golden.  

Phleum pratense L. “Timothy”

Two collections and a couple of observations of this common non-native grass. Most Jefferson County collections are out on the plains, with a few in the foothills. Colorado state collections are from the Front Range to the west.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in meadows.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1677, 28 Jun 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1677, Poa compressa

Area List: Golden.  

Poa compressa L. “Canada Bluegrass”

Collected on North Table Mountain and Tin Cup Ridge, but probably more common than the number of collections would indicate. Poa compressa is commonly planted to control erosion on disturbed sites such as roadsides, mine reclamation sites, heavy use recreation areas, and for low maintenance landscaping. City of Golden treats it as an invasive, non-native grass to avoid for revegetation (Golden, 2019).

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2057, 4 Jun 2019;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2057, Poa pratensis

Area List: Golden.  

Poa pratensis L. “Kentucky Bluegrass”

(Syn: P. agassizensis B. Boivin & D. Löve) Common around Golden; collected on North and South Table Mountains, the Survey Field, and North Washington Open Space. Often planted for range “improvement.” Invasive, non-native grass to avoid for revegetation (Golden, 2019).

Area List: Golden.  

Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Nevski “Russian wildrye”

Collected in 1983 in a vacant field north end of Golden. Now covered by a housing development.

Other articles:
• Tilting Mesa Trail:   at pond;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1959.2, 21 Jun 2018;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1959.2, Puccinellia distans

Area List: Golden.  

Puccinellia distans (L.) Parl. “European Alkali Grass”

Collected on northwest side of pond, sometimes called “Vaca Lake,” on North Table Mountain.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Secale cereale;
• Rubey Drive:   at turn;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2350, 12 Jun 2020;
• Glossary:  auricle;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1110, Secale cereale, auricles ±1 mm.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1110, Secale cereale

Area List: Golden.  

Secale cereale L. “Cereal Rye”

Scattered aound Golden from Dakota Ridge to South Table Mountain. Probably planted as a revegetation grass beside Nightbird Gulch at CO Highway 93 and Iowa Drive. The collection at Dakota Ridge is more likely the weedy rye and not the cultivated rye because the rachis is quite brittle.
Full Size Image
Spikelets of Coll. No. 2350, Secale cereale

Area List: Golden.  

Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. “Green Bristlegrass”

Common, and adventive in city gardens, but only collected on South Table Mountain.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Thinopyrum intermedium;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1709, 14 Jul 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1709, Thinopyrum intermedium

Area List: Golden.  

Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D. R. Dewey “Intermediate Wheatgrass”

(Syn: Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis) Intermediate wheatgrass has been collected or observed in Golden at New Loveland Mine Park, North Table Mountain, North Washington Open Space, and South Table Mountain.

Often planted in a revegetation project. Generally, it is not an invasive plant and coexists well with native plant species. The sources of the various cultivars of Intermediate Wheatgrass are Russia, Turkey, and China.

Area List: Golden.  

Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Z.-W. Liu & R.-C. Wang. “Rush Wheatgrass”

(Syn: Elymus elongatus (Host) Runemark) Observed, but not collected on North Table Mountain. Planted as a revegetation grass at Rocky Flats (Jody K. Nelson, #640, 7 May 1998, COLO543181).

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2089, 26 Jun 2019;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2089, Triticum aestivum

Area List: Golden.  

Triticum aestivum L. “Wheat”

Found in North Washington Open Space where it was planted, perhaps as a contaminant, as part of a revegetation project following construction on adjacent property.

   

Non-Native Mustards in the Golden Landscape

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notable Non-Native Plants;  

Non-Native Mustards in the Golden Landscape

Eighteen taxa in the Brassicaceae are non-native to Golden s.l. Three of them: Hesperis matronalis L. Dame's Rocket, Lepidium draba L. White Top, and L. latifolium L. Broad-Leaved Pepper-Grass, are noxious weeds that are discussed above. The remaining fourteen taxa are discussed below.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2063.2, 6 June 2019;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2063.2, Alyssum alyssoides

Area List: Golden.  

Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L. “Pale Madwort”

This taxon and the next, A. simplex, are very similar. They are distinguished by whether the sepals are persistent and whether the filaments are winged.

There is only one collection in Golden s.l., from Eagle Ridge, and one observation from North Table Mountain. Presence of A. alyssoides needs confirmation. The author has personally collected it at Lippincott Ranch, northernmost Jefferson County, but nearly all collections around Golden s.l. turn out to be A. simplex.

Other articles:
• North Table Loop:   half-way;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1367, 24 May 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1367, Alyssum simplex

Area List: Golden.  

Alyssum simplex Rudolphi “European Madwort”

(Syn: Alyssum minus Rothm., Alyssum parviflorum Fisch. ex M.Bieb. ) Ubiquitous little weed found everywhere.

Other articles:
• Kinney Run Trail:   at Deadman Gl;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1818, 16 May 2018;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1818, Barbarea vulgaris

Area List: Golden.  

Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. “Garden Yellowrocket”

Common weed of wet places, or in streams, Kinney Run, North and South Table Mountains, and CSM Survey Field.

Other articles:
• Tucker Gulch Trail:   near shelter;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1056;

Locations: Tucker Gulch (lower).
Full Size ImageHabitat of Berteroa incana

Area List: Golden.  

Berteroa incana (L.) DC. “Hoary Alyssum”

Collected in Tucker Gulch and Apex Gulch in 2019. Not collected in Apex Gulch in 1959-1960 by Ernest H. Brunquist, so it may be a recent introduction there. Weber & Wittmann (2012) say, “abundant in meadows of the Front Range valleys and expected to spread throughout the middle altitudes.” Recently collected by the author in the Buffalo Creek Recreation Area, filling in the plant’s range in southern Jefferson County.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1056, Berteroa incana

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1876, 24 May 2018;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1876, Camelina microcarpa

Area List: Golden.  

Camelina microcarpa Andrz. Ex DC. “Little-Podded False Flax”

Common little weed world-wide, including all Golden s.l. open spaces.

Other articles:
• Tucker Gulch Trail:   at shelter;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1336, 11 May 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1336, Capsella bursa-pastoris

Area List: Golden.  

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. “Shepherd's Purse”

Another common little weed world-wide, but for some reason has only been collected at Tucker Gulch in Golden s.l.

Other articles:
• Neighborhood Access Trail:   near trailhead;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1308;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1308, Chorispora tenella

Area List: Golden.  

Chorispora tenella (Pall.) DC. “Crossflower”

Common weedy plants of disturbed areas, found mostly everywhere, though often an early spring wildflower.

Other articles:
• Forest Road 01N106A:   s. of Bohler Ck.;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 935;

Locations: Bohler Canyon.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 935, Descurainia sophia

Area List: Golden.  

Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb. “Tansy Mustard”

Eagle Ridge and North Table Mountain, probably under collected.

Other articles:
• Kinney Run Trail:   at Deadman Gl;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1821, 12 May 2018;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1821, Draba nemorosa

Area List: Golden.  

Draba nemorosa L. “Woodland Whitlow Grass”

Colorado authors disagree whether this plant is native or non-native. Regardless, it is found in Kinney Run, Heritage Square, and South Table Mountain.

Area List: Golden.  

Erysimum cheiranthoides L. “Wormseed Wallflower”

I have not seen this and there is one collection from North Table Mountain.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1413, 10 Jun 2016;   Coll. No. 1607, 13 May 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1413, Lepidium campestre
Full Size ImageFruit of Coll. No. 1607, Lepidium campestre

Area List: Golden.  

Lepidium campestre (L.) W. T. Aiton “Field Pepperweed”

Two collections in the Survey Field, not quite as noxious as L. draba.

Other articles:
• Mesa Spur Trail:   along trail;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1808, 10 May 2018;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1808, Lepidium perfoliatum

Area List: Golden.  

Lepidium perfoliatum L. “Clasping Pepperweed”

One collection in the road north side of North Table Mountain between the horse ranches. My other collection is from central Nevada.

Literature Cited:
- Aiton, William T., 2nd. ed., 1810-13.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Nasturtium officinale;

Area List: Golden.  

Nasturtium officinale R. Br. “Watercress”

I have seen Nasturtium officinale R. Br. “Watercress” at only one place in Golden s.l., that being in flowing water near Apex Gulch. It was also collected by Loraine Yeatts on South Table Mountain. Collections in Jefferson County are right along the edge of the Front Range. It is pretty widespread in Colorado, including mountain valleys and along water ways in the eastern plains.

The plant was described by W. T. Aiton (1812) as being native of Britain and cultivated at Kew.

Area List: Golden.  

Sisymbrium altissimum L. “Tall Tumblemustard”

North and South Table Mountains, North Washington Open Space and Heritage Square.

Area List: Golden.  

Sisymbrium loeselii L. Loesel's “Tumble Mustard”

One observation from North Table Mountain, needs verification.

Other articles:
• North Table Loop:   half-way;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1365, 24 May 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1365, Thlaspi arvense

Area List: Golden.  

Thlaspi arvense L. “Field Penny Cress”

Common on North and South Table Mountain, Kinney Run, Survey Field, and North Washington Open Space, usually in wetter places.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notable Non-Native Plants;  

Non-Native Sunflowers in the Golden Landscape

 
  There are 17 non-native plants in the Sunflower family (Asteraceae) that have been collected in Golden. Seven of those are Colorado listed noxious weeds. Noxious weeds are discussed as a group above. They are.

  • Noxious Weed List B
    • Acroptilon repens (L.) DC. Russian Knapweed.
    • Carduus nutans L. Nodding Plumeless Thistle.
    • Centaurea diffusa Lam. White Knapweed.
    • Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada Thistle.
  • Noxious Weed List C
    • Arctium minus Bernh. Lesser Burdock.
    • Cichorium intybus L. Chicory.
  • Noxious Weed Watch List
    • Carthamus lanatus L. Wooly Distaff Thistle.
  There are ten non-native species of Asteraceae that are not listed noxious weeds.

Full Size ImageRatzloff collection of Conyza canadensis in Golden.

Area List: Golden.  

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist “Canadian Horseweed”

(Syn: Erigeron canadensis L.) A common adventive garden weed, though often overlooked when collecting because of its ubiquity and unassuming appearance. In Jefferson County it is commonly found along the foothills and is scattered throughout Colorado except for the highest mountains.

Evidently originally native in the eastern states, but probably spreading as the West was developed (Weber & Wittmann, 2012). Recent phylogenetic work suggests that Conyza is nested within Erigeron and consequently some authors are again treating it as an Erigeron.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Galinsoga parviflora;

Area List: Golden.  

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. “Gallant Soldier”

Collected once in downtown Golden, which is the only collection in Jefferson County. Throughout Colorado it is found mostly in urban situations along the Front Range.

Cavaniles saw it named Verbesina biflorae in the Botanic Garden of Paris, grown from seed brought from Peru by D. Dombeyo, and saw it again in the Garden of Matritense (Madrid) with a name changed to Galinsoga.

Area List: Golden.  

Gnaphalium uliginosum L. “Marsh Cudweed”

Collected once on South Table Mountain. and then at Chatfield Farms in Jefferson County. Scattered in the foothills and west in Colorado.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1749, 31 Aug 2017;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1749, Lactuca serriola

Area List: Golden.  

Lactuca serriola L. “Prickly Lettuce”

“Prickly Lettuce” — Lactuca serriola L. — is a ubiquitous adventive weed in open spaces and gardens. While it is the wild progenitor of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa), the prickles on the leaves make it impossible to eat. Generally collected along the foothills in the intensively-collected locations in Jefferson County, and scattered all across Colorado.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1399, 8 Jun 2016;
Full Size ImageSchweich collection of Scorzonera laciniata

Area List: Golden.  

Scorzonera laciniata L. “Cutleaf Vipergrass”

This common weed with a great name “Cutleaf Vipergrass” — Scorzonera laciniata L. — is found in open spaces, and is adventive in gardens. It is often confused with Tragopogon dubius.

Treated as Podospermum laciniatum (L.) De Candolle by Weber & Wittmann (2012) who note that is was first seen near Boulder in 1954.

There are about 180-190 species of Scorzonera world-wide but only S. laciniata has been reported in Colorado.

Area List: Golden.  

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. “Spiny Sowthistle”

There was just one collection of “Spiny Sowthistle” — Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. — made many years ago in the downtown alley of 10th Street. Since then the author has collected it on a bank of Kinney Run, gracing both KHD and COLO with specimens.

This is one of several sowthistles found in Jefferson County, and the others, particularly S. oleraceus, may be found in Golden s.l. with more systematic collection.

Area List: Golden.  

Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. “Common Dandelion”

I don't know, what can you say about “Common Dandelion” — Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. — beside it is common everywhere, and therefore often overlooked for collection, e.g., not collected by Brunquist at Magic Mountain, but very likely it was there.

Our current Flora of Colorado (Ackerfield 2015) recognizes T. laevigatum (Willd.) DC., whereas our penultimate flora (Weber & Wittmann, 2012) treats it as a synonym of T. officinale. The deeper one digs into the question the more complicated it gets. However, suffice it to say that in Colorado mature seed is needed to distinguish one from the other.

Other articles:
• Plainview Road:   near coll loc;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1115, 28 May 2015;
• Glossary:  beak;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1115, Tragopogon dubius

Area List: Golden.  

Tragopogon dubius Scop. “Yellow Salsify”

Common in open spaces, adventive in gardens, ubiquitous. Found throughout Colorado, mostly in the foothills and lower elevations the mountains, but fewer out on the plains. The distribution of collections in Jefferson County closely parallels the locations that have been intensively botanized. On field trips this is a good plant to discuss the function of pappus and describe what is meant by a “beak.”

Other articles:
• North Table Loop:   near horse pasture;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1539, 18 Aug 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1539, Verbesina encelioides

Area List: Golden.  

Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. F. ex A. Gray “Cowpen Daisy”

In Golden s.l., “Cowpen Daisy” — Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. F. ex A. Gray — has been collected on South Table Mountain, and on North Table Mountain at the fenceline of a horse pen. Known from only a few places in Jefferson County, and broadly scattered around Colorado except for the northwest corner. Waste places, unclear if uncommon, or under-collected. First described as Ximenesia encelioides Cavanilles with habitat in Mexico, both Colorado authors agree that it is introduced to the state, though the USDA Plants data base shows it as native.

Area List: Golden.  

Xanthium strumarium L. “Common Cocklebur”

There are thre collections of Common Cocklebur — Xanthium strumarium — in Golden s.l. generally from waste places. Collections in Jefferson County are along the base of the Front Range. Otherwise, sparingly distributed along the foothills and valleys throughout Colorado. It is possibly under-collected because it is such a weed, and better data is needed.

   

Other Families

 
  There are nine plant families that are represented only by non-native taxa, and many of them are listed noxious weeds. Fortunately, there are only one or two taxa from each of those families. The families are:

  • Adoxaceae, one species: Sambucus canadensis L. American Black Elderberry.
  • Dipsacaceae, two species: Dipsacus fullonum L. Fuller's Teasel and Dipsacus laciniatus L. Cutleaf Teasel, both List B noxious weeds.
  • Elaeagnaceae, one species: Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Russian Olive, a List B noxious weed.
  • Hypericaceae, one species: Hypericum perforatum L. Common St. John's Wort, a List C noxious weed.
  • Lythraceae, one taxon, Lythrum salicaria L. Purple Loosestrife, a listed noxious weed in some states, such as Washington, but not in Colorado.
  • Oleaceae, two species: Fraxinus americana L. White Ash, and Ligustrum vulgare L. Privet, neither of which as noxious weeds. The privet is likely a recent introduction to the Magic Mountain area.
  • Oxalidaceae, one species, Oxalis stricta L. Common Yellow Oxalis, listed as a noxious weed in some states but not Colorado.
  • Ulmaceae, two species, Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. Chinese Elm, not listed, and Ulmus pumila L. Siberian Elm, a watch list plant in Colorado.
  • Zygophyllaceae, one species: Tribulus terrestris L. Puncture Vine, List C noxious weed species.

 

Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl Ludwig, 1809.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Allium × proliferum;

Area List: Golden.  

Allium × proliferum (Moench) Schrad. ex Willd. “Garden Onion”

One collection of this probable garden escapee that was made in Kinney Run. There are no other collections in Jefferson County or the state of Colorado.

Published by Willdenow (1809) from a description by Schrader.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Asparagus officinalis;

Area List: Golden.  

Asparagus officinalis L. “Asparagus”

Fairly common in Golden s.l. with collections on North and South Table Mountains and Tin Cup Ridge. Often seen in other places. Jefferson County collections are along the base of the Front Range. Colorado state collections are scattered around the state with a few along the South Platte River to the eastern border.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in sandy places in Europe.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Muscari botryoides;

Area List: Golden.  

Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. “Common Grape Hyacinth”

A common garden escapee, and probably more common in open spaces of Golden s.l. than the number of collections would indicate. Some locations, such as the rock outcrops near the archeological site on Apex Gulch, are far removed from private gardens, suggesting our plant has naturalized. Nearly all the collections in Jefferson County are in Golden, in part due to the collecting efforts of the author. Expanding the search to all of Colorado adds only a collection in Fort Collins.

First described as Hyacinthus botryoides by Linnaeus (1753), and then placed in Muscari by Miller (1768).

Neither of our two Colorado floras (Ackerfield, 2015, and Weber & Wittmann, 2012) accept our plant, nor does Flora of North America note that it is found in Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Populus alba;

Area List: Golden.  

Populus alba L. “White Cottonwood”

There is only one collection of the non-native Populus alba L. “White Cottonwood” in Golden s.l., made on South Table Mountain in 1984 by Loraine Yeatts. Jefferson County collections were made on the plains or at the base of the foothills, including a collection by the author at Ranson/Edwards Homestead Open Space Park. At the Colorado state level, most collections are in the metro Denver area, with scattered collections around the state.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as occuring in temperate Europe, though it is now considered native to central & southern Europe to Xinjiang and western Himalaya. It is introduced in New Mexico and Colorado, the first collection being made in El Paso County in 1935.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Carpinus betulus;

Area List: Golden.  

Carpinus betulus L. “European hornbeam”

There is only one collection of Carpinus betulus L. “European hornbeam” in Colorado, that made near the Coors plant in Golden in 1949.

Linnaeus (1753) described the tree as native to Europe and Canada, though POWO does not show it lives there, nor are there any Canadian collections in SEINet. The tree is native to Germany, and it is possibly planted on the Coors grounds for that reason.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Fallopia convolvulus;

Area List: Golden.  

Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A.Löve “Black Bindweed”

Found on South Table Mountain, in Apex Gulch and on Lookout Mountain. Found sporadically around Jefferson County, though especially in the intensely-collected places of Rocky Flats, Heritage Square, and Chatfield Farms. The author has collected it at Ranson/Edwards. Found mostly around the Front Range and a little bit out on the plains, with a very few collections in the interior valleys.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) from plants found in the European countryside.

Ackerfield (2015) accepts our plant as native. However, POWO (2022) states it is introduced to the new world.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Persicaria lapathifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) A. Gray “Pale Smartweed”

One collection, on South Table Mountain.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Persicaria maculosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Persicaria maculosa Gray “Lady's Thumb”

One collection near the Peabody Museum dig (1959). Other Jefferson County collections are at Crown Hill Lake and Chatfield Farms. Colorado state collections are centered around the Front Range urban areas, and then thinly scattered around the state.

The author is Samuel Frederick Gray (1766-1828), not Asa Gray.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Polygonum aviculare;

Area List: Golden.  

Polygonum aviculare L. “Prostrate Knotweed”

A common small annual garden weed, Polygonum aviculare L. “Prostrate Knotweed” has been collected on North and South Table Mountains, and very likely overlooked elsewhere. Jefferson County collections were made at the commonly intensely-collected locations, such as Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. Found nearly everywhere in the state.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rumex acetosella;

Area List: Golden.  

Rumex acetosella L. “Sheep Sorrel”

Collected on Lookout Mountain and seen in Cressmans Gulch. Jefferson County collections are spread throughout the county, on the plains and in the foothills, though more common in the intensely-collected areas. Collected by the author at Ranson/Edwards and Lippincott Ranch. Colorado state collections are in the mountainous areas of the state, and not out on the plains or in the large valleys.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as growing in European pastures and sandy fields.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rumex crispus;

Area List: Golden.  

Rumex crispus L. “Curley Dock”

Fairly common, having been collected on North and South Table Mountains, North Washington Open Space, Apex Gulch, and seen in the Stonebridge HOA common areas. Found throughout northern Jefferson County, primarily below the foothills, but with one collection at Golden Gate Canyon State Park. Colorado state collections throughout the state.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in “Europae succulentis,” which meaning I have been unable to determine.

 

Literature Cited:
- Zeise, Larry Steven, 1976.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rumex triangulivalvis;  Notes on Rumex salicifolius;

Area List: Golden.  

Rumex salicifolius Weinm. “Willow Dock”

There is a report of Rumex salicifolius Weinm. “Willow Dock” on North Table Mountain (Zeise, 1976), although R. salicifolius is not thought to occur in Colorado. It was probably R. triangulivalvis, which has sometimes been treated as a variety of R. salicifolius and has also been observed but not collected on North Table Mountain.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Atriplex hortensis;

Area List: Golden.  

Atriplex hortensis L. “Garden Orache”

There is one collection, of several plants growing in a lawn near Colorado School of Mines. No other collections in Jefferson County. Colorado collections are scattered along railroads, in vacant lots, and disturbed places around the state.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Chenopodium album;

Area List: Golden.  

Chenopodium album L. “Lambsquarters”

This is probably fairly common all around Golden s.l., though the only collections are from North and South Table Mountains, Dakota Ridge, and North Washington Open Space. More collections from Jefferson County. Scattered around Colorado, in nearly every county.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dysphania botrys;

Area List: Golden.  

Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants “Jerusalem Oak Goosefoot”

There are several collections from the Magic Mountain area, plus one from South Table Mountain. Jefferson County collections are scattered around the northern part of the county, including a recent collection by the author. Most Colorado collections are along the Front Range, with a few more in the southwestern part of the state.

Originally described as Chenopodium botrys Linnaeus (1753), it was placed in Robert Brown's (1802) Dysphania by Mosyakin & Clemants (2002).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Salsola tragus;

Area List: Golden.  

Salsola tragus L. “Tumbleweed”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Portulaca oleracea;

Area List: Golden.  

Portulaca oleracea L. “Little Hogweed”

Only one collection, on South Table Mountain. Probably overlooked by most collectors. Most Jefferson County collections are along the base of the Front Range, with no collections in the foothills. Colorado state collections are scattered around the state, with concentrations in the urban areas.

Described by Linnaeus (1753). At that time th plant was known from Virginia, though we know think it was introduced to North America. Its native range is Macaronesia, Tropical Africa, Mediterranean to Pakistan and Arabian Peninsula.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Dianthus armeria;

Area List: Golden.  

Dianthus armeria L. “Deptford Pink”

There is one collection of Dianthus armeria L. “Deptford Pink” from Golden s.l. made by the author in the northern part of Apex Park. Collections in Jefferson county include one each from Lippincott Ranch and Ranson/Edwards by the author, and a couple from the vicinity of Chatfield Farms, an intensely collected location. Colorado lcoations are mostly along the foothills with a few locations in the interior of the state.

 

Literature Cited:
- Bieberstein, Marschall von, Freidrich August, 1808.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gypsophila paniculata;  Notes on Gypsophila elegans;

Area List: Golden.  

Gypsophila elegans M. Bieb. “Showy Baby's Breath”

There is one collection of this species of Baby's Breath, made on Lookout Mountain. One other collection in Jefferson County was made at Rocky Flats. The few (eight) Colorado collections have been made along the base of the Front Range.

The species was first described from the region of Mount Kafbek (Kazbek) in the Caucasus Mountains, in the gravels of the Terek River that drains the north side of the mountains, and in the Alps of Kafbek (Bieberstein, M., 1808). It is frequently found in wildflower mixes.

There is another Baby's Breath — Gypsophila paniculata — found in Golden that is on the Colorado Noxious Weed Watch List.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Holosteum umbellatum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2246, Holosteum umbellatum

Area List: Golden.  

Holosteum umbellatum L. “Jagged Chickweed”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Silene latifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Silene latifolia Poir. “Bladder Campion”

I have made one collection of Silene latifolia Poir. “Bladder Campion” along the Welch Ditch. This location is in Clear Creek Canyon Park and Golden s.l. I also have a observation of the species in the Stonebridge HOA property. There are a few collections around Jefferson County, including the intensely-collected locations of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms, and at Meyer Ranch. The Colorado distribution is north and south in the central part of the state from Wyoming south to New Mexico.

The taxon was described by Poiret (1789) in his Voyage en Barbarie, though I do not see any distribution information in the French text.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Stellaria media;

Area List: Golden.  

Stellaria media (L.) Vill. “Common Chickweed”

Two collections in Golden s.l., one in the North Washington Open Space and the other on Water Street about at the Golden Mill parking lot. There is one other collection in Jefferson County at the mouth of Coal Creek Canyon.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ranunculus acris;

Area List: Golden.  

Ranunculus acris L. “Tall Buttercup”

Two collections in Golden s.l., one at the Peabody Museum archeological dig, and the other by the author in Tucker Gulch. These are also the only collections in Jefferson County. There are few other collections in the state, scattered seemingly randomly.

Described by Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 554) as living in the meadows and pastures of Europe.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ranunculus repens;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1333, Ranunculus repens

Area List: Golden.  

Ranunculus repens L. “Creeping Buttercup”

Two collections of i>Ranunculus repens L. “Creeping Buttercup” in Jefferson County, one by the author on Tucker Gulch in Golden s.l., and the other by Wm. Huestis at Clear Creek and Wadsworth more than a century ago. Colorado state collections are mostly in the Denver metropolitan area, with other collections scattered around the state.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as being found in cultivated areas of Europe.

Full Size Image
Basal leaf of Coll. No. 1333, Ranunculus repens

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ranunculus testiculatus;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2446, Ranunculus testiculatus

Area List: Golden.  

Ranunculus testiculatus Crantz “Bur Buttercup”

This little non-native annual Ranunculus has been found in several places along 10th Street and Clear Creek in downtown Golden. It is also adventive in my garden. The other Jefferson County location is Chatfield Farms. Most Colorado State collections are at lower elevations on the western slope.

Its native range is central and southeast Europe to Xinjiang, northwest Africa.

 

Literature Cited:
- Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, J. L. A., 1809.
- Vaillant, Sebastien, 1827 (post.).

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Fumaria vaillantii;

Area List: Golden.  

Fumaria vaillantii Loisel. “Earthsmoke”

First collected in Golden s.l. in 1993 by Stanley Smookler, “Earthsmoke” — Fumaria vaillantii Loisel. — was called to my attention by Cindy Trujillo who found it in Tucker Gulch. A subsequent search of Vanover Park showed that the plant also persists in the location originally collected by Mr. Smookler. A few other collections are scattered around Jefferson County including the intensely collected sites of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms. There are a few other collections in the metro Denver and Fort Collins areas.

Described by Loiseleur (1809) from collections made in sandy fields 7 leagues (about 24 miles) from Paris, it is named for Sebastien Vaillant, a doctor and botanist in the early part of the 18th century, who is credited with putting together the first regional flora in a single document.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lunaria annua;

Area List: Golden.  

Lunaria annua L. “Money Plant”

 

   

Non-Native Rosaceae

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cotoneaster lucidus;

Area List: Golden.  

Cotoneaster lucidus Schltdl. “Hairy Stem Cotoneaster”

Seen by the author in Apex Gulch, it has also been collected by the author in Clear Creek Canyon and Lindsay/Jeffco. One other Jefferson County collection at Corwina Park. Colorado collections are in the foothills near urban areas.

Published in 1856 by Schlechtendal, it is accepted by Ackerfield (2015) though also (POWO, 2022) treated as a synonym of C. acutifolius Turcz., which is native to central China, Mongolia, and Tibet.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Malus pumila;

Area List: Golden.  

Malus pumila Mill. “Common Apple; Crabapple”

Occasionally, one will come upon an old apple tree or crabapple, or a small group of trees. This has happened to the author in Apex Park and in a canyon on North Table Mountain. This is also true of Rocky Flats where several old orchards were located. The number of actual collections in Colorado is quite small, and scattered throughout the state.

Malus or Apple is distinguished from Prunus by the inferior ovary, and the fruit being a pome.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Prunus domestica;

Area List: Golden.  

Prunus domestica L. “European Plum”

One collection in Golden s.l. in a canyon on the southeast side of North Table Mountain. This is also the only collection in Jefferson County. At the state level there are four other collections, two on the CSU campus in Larimer County, one in Deer Trail, and another near Durango.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) along with 14 varieties, all at higher elevations in western Europe. According to Plants of the World (Kew, 2022) it is native to Turkey and introduced elsewhere.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Sorbus aucuparia;

Locations: Clear Creek Canyon Park. Welch Ditch.

Area List: Golden.  

Sorbus aucuparia L. “European Mountain Ash”

There is a single collection of Sorbus aucuparia L. “European Mountain Ash” in Golden s.l. and Jefferson County, made by the author on the Welch Ditch at the easternmost edge of Clear Creek Canyon Park. Colorado collections are mostly around Denver and Colorado Springs, with one odd collection near Grand Lake.

The tree was described by Linnaeus (1753) as native to the colder parts of Europe. POWO (2021) shows nativity to nearly all of Eurasia. The fruit is usually astringent, but some varieties have culinary interest. The seeds are indigestible and distributed by birds. Listed noxious weed in Washington and Oregon.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Colutea arborescens;
Full Size ImageColutea arborescens along Cressman Gulch trail near Wyoming St.

Area List: Golden.  

Colutea arborescens L. “Bladder Senna”

This non-native shrub called “Bladder Senna” — Colutea arborescens L. — is well-established along Cressmans Gulch, in North Washington Open Space, and on the west side of South Table Mountain. Weber & Wittmann (2012) note that it was introduced about 1913 around houses in Sunshine Canyon northwest of Boulder, and is now spreading and becoming established in the foothill canyons. Indeed, there are several collections from the early 1950s that were made in Sunshine Canyon. The oldest collections, however, were made in 1935 in Colorado Springs.

Our plant was described by Linnaeus (1753) noting that the plants were from Austria, the south of France, and Italy, possibly Venice (Latin name Vensuzium).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Medicago lupulina;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1803, Medicago lupulina

Area List: Golden.  

Medicago lupulina L. “Black Medick”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Medicago sativa;

Area List: Golden.  

Medicago sativa L. “Alfalfa”

Medicago sativa L. “Alfalfa” is a common weed in all open spaces, and adventive in gardens.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Melilotus albus;

Area List: Golden.  

Melilotus albus Medik. “White Sweet Clover”

There are collections of Melilotus albus Medik. “White Sweet Clover” on North and South Table Mountains. It is probably elsewhere, too; but just not collected.

Although M. albus can be a problematic invasive species it is also important in many places as a fodder crop, a honey producer, soil stabiliser and a useful species for land reclamation. In some places, though, for example, Mono Lake, California, it is targeted for removal, even by hand-pulling.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Melilotus officinalis;
Full Size ImageInflorescence of Coll. No. 1687, Melilotus officinalis

Area List: Golden.  

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. “Yellow Sweet Clover”

Collected more often than the above, “Yellow Sweet Clover” — Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. — has been found in nearly every Golden open space.

Like Melilotus albus, M. officinalis was first described by Linnaeus (1753) as Trifolium melilotus-officinalis, then published by Lamarck by the name we know it now.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Robinia pseudoacacia;

Area List: Golden.  

Robinia pseudoacacia L. “Black Locust”

There is one collection of Robinia pseudoacacia L. “Black Locust” in Golden s.l. from South Table Mountain.

In Jefferson County, it is also known from Rocky Flats, Majestic Nature Center, along Clear Creek in Arvada. It is very likely to be undercollected. In Colorado, it is mainly collected in the urban areas of the Front Range, and in a few scattered locations around the state.

This tree is a North American tree, first described by Linnaeus (1753) as being from Virginia.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Securigera varia;

Area List: Golden.  

Securigera varia (L.) Lassen “Purple Crownvetch”

Rocky Flats, Majestic View Nature Center, North Table Mountain, vicininty of Green Mountain, and Chatfield Farms.

State: urban areas, and scattered around the state.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oxalis stricta;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1676, Oxalis stricta

Area List: Golden.  

Oxalis stricta L. “Common Yellow Oxalis”

There is one collection of Oxalis stricta L. “Common Yellow Oxalis” in Golden s.l., made 60+ years ago at Heritage Square by E. H. Brunquist. Jefferson County collections are widely scattered throughout the county, including a collection by the author at Ranson/Edwards. State collections are mostly in the urban areas, as one would expect with a little alien weed. The oldest Colorado collection was John M. Coulter, #10442, August 1873, on Turkey Creek, Jefferson County.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in Virginia, some sources (Ackerfield, 2015) treat it as introduced to Colorado, whereas others (POWO, 2022) treat it as native.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ogle, D. G., L. St. John, J. S. Peterson, and D. J. Tilley, 2009.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Linum lewisii;  Notes on Linum perenne;

Area List: Golden.  

Linum perenne L. “Blue Flax”

According to Cronquist et al. (1997, quoted in Ogle, et al., 2009), “the only significant difference between Linum lewisii and the Eurasian Linum perenne appears to be that the former is homostylic, and the latter heterostylic.” See the discussion of Linum lewisii.

Jefferson County collections of Linum that are determined L. perenne, of which there are five, are right along the base of the Front Range. Colorado collections are along the Front Range, and in the mountain valleys, with a few out on the plains.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Rhamnus cathartica;
Full Size ImageFruit of Obs. No. 2453, Rhamnus cathartica

Area List: Golden.  

Rhamnus cathartica L. “European Buckthorn”

No collections in Golden s.l., but one observation in Apex Park - North. Jefferson County collections are at urban parks. Colorado state collections are mostly in the urban areas along the Front Range.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) saying that it lives on the fences of southern Europe. Its native range is now known as Europe to western Siberia and Xinjiang, northwest Africa.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Malva neglecta;

Area List: Golden.  

Malva neglecta Wallr. “Common Mallow”

There is one collection of Malva neglecta Wallr. “Common Mallow” in Golden s.l., made by the author at North Washington Open Space (Schweich Hill). Of course, it is a much more common weed, just overlooked by collectors because it is so common. Similarly, there are only a few collections in Jefferson County, made primarily in the urban areas. Colorado state collections are scattered across the state, but concentrated in the urban areas, and intensely collected areas.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oenothera biennis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2416, Oenothera biennis

Area List: Golden.  

Oenothera biennis L. “King's-Cureall”

There is only one collection of Oenothera biennis L. “King's-Cureall” in Golden s.l., although it is much more common than the number of collections would indicate. Similarly, there are only two collections in Jefferson County, mine listed above, and another from Bear Creek Canyon. Colorado state collections are few, and broadly distributed around the state.

Our plant was first described by Linnaeus (1753) who noted it was introduced to Europe from Virginia in 1614, and subsequently became common in Europe. Walter (1788) also described our plant in Flora Caroliniana, without comment. Currently, the plant is thought to be native to the lower 48 states of the United States and the southern provinces of Canada, except for the southern Rocky Mountain states (including Colorado).

The common name “King's-Cureall” probably refers to its use for a wide variety of maladies, as it contains a number of essential fatty acids, including gamma linoleic acid.

Distinguished from O. villosa by examining the bases of the hairs. The hairs of O. villosa have red pustular bases, which the hairs of O. biennis lack.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Fraxinus americana;

Area List: Golden.  

Fraxinus americana L. “White Ash”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ligustrum vulgare;

Area List: Golden.  

Ligustrum vulgare L. “Privet”

 

   

Non-Native Boraginaceae

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Asperugo procumbens;

Area List: Golden.  

Asperugo procumbens L. “German Madwort”

The author has one collection of Asperugo procumbens L. “German Madwort” in Golden s.l., this one made along the Tucker Gulch trail, on a steep slope adjacent to the second bridge. Other collections in Jefferson County have been made at the intensely collected locations of Rocky Flats and Chatfield Farms, with a couple along Van Bibber Creek at MacIntyre and Indiana Streets, plus one by the author at Lippincott Ranch by the author. Colorado collections are mostly along the Front Range from Sandstone Ranch north to a cluster of collections around Fort Collins.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lithospermum arvense;

Area List: Golden.  

Lithospermum arvense L. “Corn Gromwell”

First found in Jefferson County at the historic cemetery in Mathews/Winters Park in 2009, we are finding Lithospermum arvense L. “Corn Gromwell” more and more commonly. The author first found it in Golden s.l. in Kinney Run (2018). Since then I have found it in Cresssmans Gulch and Tucker Gulch. Its Colorado distribution is mostly along the Front Range, with a few odd collections in other parts of the state. The oldest collection in Colorado was made in Glenwood Springs in 1944.

The species was described by Linnaeus (1753) as native to European fields and countryside.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lamium amplexicaule;

Area List: Golden.  

Lamium amplexicaule L. “Henbit”

Lamium amplexicaule L. “Henbit” is a prime example of a ubiquitous annual weed that no one bothers to collect. There is one collection in Golden s.l., that by the author at North Washington Open Space. As it happens, there is only one other collection in all of Jefferson County, at Inspiration Point in 1971. Colorado collections are scattered widely around the state, with some concentration in the urban areas.

The plant was described by Linnaeus (1753). The common name Henbit is probably derived from an older name, “Morfus gallinae,” the bite of a hen.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Marrubium vulgare;

Area List: Golden.  

Marrubium vulgare L. “Horehound”

The non-native Marrubium vulgare L. “Horehound” is common in Golden s.l. having been seen on Dakota Ridge in the north, North and South Table Mountains, Heritage Square, and Tin Cup Ridge in the south.

Jefferson County collections are right along the base of the foothills. Colorado collections are scattered around the state, except in the highest mountains and the eastern plains.

Our plant was described by Linnaeus (1753) as growing in ruderal lands of northern Europe.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Mentha spicata;

Area List: Golden.  

Mentha spicata L. “Spearmint”

Mentha spicata L. “Spearmint” has been reported from North Table Mountain and the vicinity of Kinney Run, though there are no collections. There is only one collection from Jefferson County, made at the Majestic View Nature Center in Arvada. Most Colorado collections are in the urban areas with a scattering of collections along the south part of the state.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Nepeta cataria;

Area List: Golden.  

Nepeta cataria L. “Catnip”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Salvia pratensis;

Area List: Golden.  

Salvia pratensis L. “Meadow Clary”

There is one collection in Deadman Gulch (Kinney Run) of a Salvia that appears to be S. pratensis and is almost certainly a garden escapee.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Plantago major;

Area List: Golden.  

Plantago major L. “Common Plantain”

Not actually collected in Golden s.l. though it has been observed. Most Jefferson County collections are along the Front Range and into the hogbacks. Colorado state collections are scattered around the state except for the eastern plains.

Its native range is Temp. Eurasia to Arabian Peninsula, Macaronesia, N. & S. Africa, and it is introduced to all 50 states of the United States.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) saying, “She lives in Europe on the streets.”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Veronica catenata;   Notes on Veronica anagallis-aquatica;

Area List: Golden.  

Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. “Water Speedwell”

There are four collections of a Veronica that are determined V. anagallis-aquatica L. “Water Speedwell” in Golden s.l., from North and South Table Mountains, the Survey Field, and Apex Park. Collections from Jefferson County are along the base of the Front Range, from Rocky Flats south to Chatfield Farms. Colorado state collections are evenly distributed around the state, except in the highest mountains.

Described by Linnaeus (1753), its native range is temperate Eurasia to tropical mountains.

Ackerfield (2015) treats V. catenata as a synonym, which would require designation of V. anagallis-aquatica a native of North America.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Veronica arvensis;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1344, Veronica arvensis

Area List: Golden.  

Veronica arvensis L. “Corn Speedwell”

Collected by the author on North Table Mountain and in the Survey Field, Veronica arvensis L. “Corn Speedwell” can be distinguished from the native V. peregrina var. xalapensis by the blue flowers, larger notch, and longer style. The author has also collected our plant at Lippincott Ranch. There are two other collections in Colorado, one of which looks very much like V. biloba.

The name was applied by Linnaeus (1753), to plants found in Europe's fields and cultivated lands. Its native range is Macronesia, northwest Africa, Europe to southwest Siberia and western Himalaya. It is introduced to the continental United States except North Dakota.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1771.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Veronica biloba;
Full Size ImageFruit of Coll. No. 2063.1, Veronica biloba

Area List: Golden.  

Veronica biloba L. “Twolobe Speedwell”

Collections of non-native Veronica biloba L. “Twolobe Speedwell” have been made on the north side of North Table Mountain, and in Cressmans Gulch and Tucker Gulch. It has also been collected at Chatfield Farms in southern Jefferson County. Except for numerous collections along the Front Range, most collections of our plant are on the west slope.

Our plant was described by Linnaeus (1771) in his Mantissa (“Addition”) noting that it occurred in Cappadocia. its native range is SE. European Russia to S. Siberia and Himalaya.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2063.1, Veronica biloba

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Notes on Caprifoliaceae;  

Non-Native Caprifoliaceae in the Golden Flora

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Knautia macedonica;

Area List: Golden.  

Knautia macedonica Griesb. “Macedonian scabious”

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1856.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lonicera morrowii;

Area List: Golden.  

Lonicera morrowii A. Gray “Morrow's honeysuckle”

There is one collection of Lonicera morrowii A. Gray “Morrow's honeysuckle” made right in downtown Golden on the banks of Clear Creek, and there is one other Jefferson County collection from the Majestic View Nature Center. Other collections in Colorado are centered around urban centers.

Native to Japan, Korea, and adjacent China, it was described by Gray (1856b) from a collection made in Japan by Dr. Morrow of the Perry Expedition to Japan and China.

This plant is listed as a noxious weed in one or more Midwestern states and should not br moved or grown under conditions that would involve danger of dissemination.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lonicera tatarica;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1591, Lonicera tatarica

Area List: Golden.  

Lonicera tatarica L. “Tatarian Honeysuckle”

There is one collection of Lonicera tatarica L. “Tatarian Honeysuckle” from Golden s.l. made by the author in the North Washington Open Space. Other collections in Jefferson County include many made at Chatfield Farms, and one from Pine Valley Ranch., Colorado collections are quite scattered, mostly in urban areas, but also a few in out-of-the-way places.

The plant was described by Linnaeus (1753) who stated lived in Tataria, which at the time referred to Central Asia and European Russia east of the river Don.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1591, Lonicera tatarica

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Viburnum lantana;

Area List: Golden.  

Viburnum lantana L. “Wayfaringtree”

There is just one collection of Viburnum lantana L. “Wayfaringtree” that may be in Golden s.l. as it was made in Lookout Mountain. There are no other Jefferson County collections. Other collections in Colorado were made in Boulder, Denver, and Colorado Springs.

The Wayfaringtree was described by Linnaeus (1753) from plants found in the hedges of southern Europe.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Campanula glomerata;

Area List: Golden.  

Campanula glomerata L. “Dane's Blood”

There is one collection of “Dane's Blood” — Campanula glomerata L. — in Golden s.l. that was made in the North Washington Open Space. It is not really a garden escapee, since it was clearly thrown or dumped in the open space, i.e., it did not escape a garden on its own. Perhaps the correct term is that it was “yeeted” into the open space. It is the only collection from Jefferson County. There are three other collections scattered around Colorado, all of which appear to be garden escapees.

It is one of four unrelated taxa known commonly as “Dane's Blood,” having in folklore sprung up in fields where Danes were slaughtered.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Campanula rapunculoides;
Full Size ImageRoots of Campanula rapunculoides

Area List: Golden.  

Campanula rapunculoides L. “Rampion Bellflower”

“Rampion Bellflower” — Campanula rapunculoides L. — is an aggressive garden weed, that spreads by rhizomes and seeds. There are two collections in Golden s.l., and two more in the wider area of Jefferson County. Colorado collections are mostly from the I-25 corridor from Colorado Springs north, though there are collections from North Park and the San Luis Valley.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) who noted the plant is native to Switzerland and France.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Artemisia absinthum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2917, Artemisia absinthum.  

Artemisia absinthum L. “Absinthe Wormwood”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Galium aparine;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1395 Galium aparine

Area List: Golden.  

Galium aparine L. “Sticky Willy, Cleavers”

A common non-native annual weed, found on North and South Table Mountains, most other open spaces, and is adventive in gardens. Found in the foothills and plains of northern Jefferson County. Moist and shady places across most of the state.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in cultivated fields and waste places of Europe. Now known to be native to north Africa and Eurasia.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Acer platanoides;

Area List: Golden.  

Acer platanoides L. “Norway Maple”

There is one collection of Acer platanoides L. “Norway Maple” in Golden s.l. in a downtown horticultural situation. All the situations in Jefferson County are cultivated locations. Colorado state collections are in urban areas along the Front Range, and then Durango in southwest Colorado.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in northern Europe.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Acer saccharinum;

Area List: Golden.  

Acer saccharinum L. “Silver Maple”

Only an observation on North Table Mountain, though there are numerous Silver Maples in Golden, e.g., 5th and Arapahoe. One collection in Jefferson County at the Majestic View Nature Center. Colorado state collections are scattered in the urban areas along the Front Range.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in Pennsylvania.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Salix alba;

Area List: Golden.  

Salix alba L. “White Willow”

There is one collection of Salix alba L. “White Willow” in Golden s.l., made by the author in Tucker Gulch. Cut down by the city because it was growing in the bed of the creek, it has grown right back. There is one other collection from Jefferson County. Sometimes I am not sure whether the tree I collected should be called S. alba or S. × fragilis, which is a hybrid with S. alba as one parent. There are certainly many more collections of S. × fragilis in Colorado than S. alba.

S. alba was described by Linnaeus (1753) as an urban tree.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ulmus americana;

Area List: Golden.  

Ulmus americana L. “American Elm”

There is one tree on the lower east slopes of North Table Mountain that may be Ulmus americana L. “American Elm” Within Jefferson County, there is one other collection made on Bear Creek, east of Morrison.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as being nativc to Virginia. Plants of the World (Kew, 2022) describes its native range as central & eastern Canada to northern Mexico, including Wyoming but not Colorado or New Mexico.

 

Literature Cited:
- Jacquin, Nicolaus J., 1797-1804.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ulmus parvifolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. “Chinese Elm”

There is a single report of Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. “Chinese Elm” on North Table Mountain (Zeise, 1976). Beyond that, there are four collections in the state, scattered widely, but none in Jefferson County. I wonder if the report of U. parvifolia is same as the U. americana of my collection above.

Described by Jacquin (1798) who said, “Patria apud nos ignota est [Homeland is unknown to us],” but Plants of the World (Kew, 2022) shows its native range is central and southern China to Vietnam, S. Korea, Japan, and Taiwan.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Ulmus pumila;

Area List: Golden.  

Ulmus pumila L. “Siberian Elm”

Ubiquitous weedy tree found nearly everywhere in Golden s.l. Collected occasionally in Jefferson County but the small number of collections belies its broad distribution. Colorado state collections are scattered around the state except for the northwest corner.

Adapted to Colorado's cold character of our climate, but not our dryness, this tree can become quite large and then die in part or all.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as living in Siberia, POWO (Kew, 2022) notes its native range is central Asia to southern Siberia and Korea. Thought to have been introduced to the US in the 1860s (https://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/).

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Notes on Polygonum achoreum;

Area List: Golden.  

Polygonum achoreum S. F. Blake “Leathery Knotweed”

One collection from South Table Mountain.

 

Literature Cited:
- Kadereit, Gudrun, and Helmut Freitag, 2011.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Kochia scoparia;
Full Size ImageHabit of Coll. No. 2577, Kochia scoparia

Area List: Golden.  

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. “Common Red Sage”

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. “Common Red Sage” is a good example of the under-collected ubiquitous weed. Until recently (actually yesterday, 16 Sep 2021) there was only one collection of the weed in Golden s.l. It is, however, ubiquitous, found all over Golden, and adventive in gardens.

We probably should be calling this Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott, per Kadereit & Freitag (2011).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Sanguisorba minor;

Area List: Golden.  

Sanguisorba minor Scop. “Burnet”

Found in a private garden while preparing for a native garden tour; unclear how the plant got here. Two other collections made at Rocky Flats. Other Colorado state collections are scattered around the state, some in proximity to human habitation, though some not.

Described by Scopoli (1772) as living in sunny and arid places. It looks to me that Linnaeus (1753) published this as Poterium Sanguiforba. Scopoli notes this in his list of synonyms, but does not show the specific name of Linnaeus.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Trifolium hybridum;

Area List: Golden.  

Trifolium hybridum L. “Alsike Clover”

One collection, on Lookout Mountain, a long time ago (1915). Most other Jefferson County Collections (there are not many) are on the plains, with the exception of one collection in Golden Gate Canyon State Park. The author has collected this plant at Ranson/Edwards. Most of the Colorado collections are in the mountains, except along the Front Range.

Described by Linnaeus (1753, v. 2., p. 766-7) as cultivated in Europe.

 

Literature Cited:
- Roth, Albrecht Wilhelm, 1788-1800.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Vicia villosa;

Area List: Golden.  

Vicia villosa Roth “Hairy Vetch”

The non-native “Hairy Vetch” — Vicia villosa Roth — has been found on North and South Table Mountains, at Heritage Square, and in Apex Gulch. It is differentiated from our native American Vetch by its densely flowered racemes.

Jefferson County collections are at the base of the Front Range, whereas Colorado state collections are widely scattered around the state.

Described by Roth (1793) with a Latin diagnosis and the notation that Roth found it in a muddy area north of Bremen.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Euphorbia peplus;

Area List: Golden.  

Euphorbia peplus L. “Petty Spurge”

Two collections, one as a garden weed in 1970, and the other an accidental collection in Kinney Run.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Parthenocissus quinquefolia;

Area List: Golden.  

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. “Virginia Creeper”

Difficult to distinguish from the native “Woodbine,” there are several collections of Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. “Virginia Creeper” from Golden s.l. from North Table Mountain and Apex Gulch. There is only one other collection in Jefferson County, and that from the Majestic View Nature Center. At the state level, most collections were made in the urban areas along the Front Range.

First described as Hedera quinquefolia Linnaeus (1753), it it native to eastern North America, including Kansas and Nebraska, but not Colorado. The genus Hedera L. contains the ivies, which are in the Araliaceae.

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Viola odorata;

Area List: Golden.  

Viola odorata L. “Common Sweet Violet”

There is one collection of this non-native common garden Violet in Golden s.l. It has also been found naturalized on an irrigation ditch in Lakewood. Colorado state collections are primarily in the metro Denver area.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) as being native to European forests. Plants of the World (Kew, 2022) maps it native range as Europe to Iran, and northwest Africa.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Verbena aristigera;

Area List: Golden.  

Verbena aristigera S. Moore “Moss Verbena”

One collection on the southeast side of North Table Mountain, probably a garden escapee.

The names for this taxon are rather confused. I first saw in in SEINet as Glandularia tenuisecta.

 

Literature Cited:
- Lagasca, Mariano, and Joseph Rodriguez, 1801.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Verbena bracteata;

Area List: Golden.  

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. “Large Bract Vervain”

Common weed in Golden gardens, with collections on North and South Table Mountains, at Heritage Square, and in Kinney Run. Collected in the northern urbanized part of Jefferson County and surrounding open spaces, e.g., in Lakewood and also on Green Mountain. Widely distributed throughout Colorado.

Described by Lagasca & Rodriguez (1801) who say, “Se ignora su patria …[Homeland is unknown].” Both current Colorado authors (Ackerfield, 2015 and Weber & Wittmann, 2012) describe it as non-native to Colorado, whereas Plants of the World (Kew, 2022) maps it as native to North America, including Colorado.

The earliest collection in Colorado was J. C. Fremont, s.n., 12 Jul 1842, near present day Greeley. Fendler collected our plant in New Mexico in 1847, but there is no record of Gambel doing so in 1841.

   

Non-Native Solanaceae — Potato or Nightshade Family

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852-1853.
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..
- Munz, Philip A., 1965.
- Regel, Eduard, 1850.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Datura wrightii;

Area List: Golden.  

Datura wrightii Regel “Sacred Datura”

Found occasionally in gardens of Golden s.l. Generally thought to be introduced to Colorado, though native to adjacent states of Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico.

Named from plants grown from seed in Paris, the seed supplied by Asa Gray from those collected by Charles Wright in Texas (1849). Gray (1852-1853) makes no mention of any Solanaceae in Plantae Wrightiana. Confused for many years with Datura meteloides DC. ex Dunal, cf. Harrington (1964) and Munz (1965), though it was known to be a different species as early as 1859 when the name was published by Regel (1859). D. meteloides is now treated as a synonym of D. innoxia Mill.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solanum dulcamara;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1961, Solanum dulcamara

Area List: Golden.  

Solanum dulcamara L. “Climbing Nightshade”

Collected in streambeds in the southern part of Golden s.l., i.e., Apex Gulch, Deadman Gulch, and Kinney Run. Collections are spotty in Jefferson County, though always out on the plains, and adjacent to water. Colorado state collections are along the Front Range and on the western slope. The collection georeferenced out on the plains is georeferenced in error.

Described by Linnaeus (1753) from wet places in Europe.

 

Literature Cited:
- Rusby, Henry H., 1896.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solanum physalifolium;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1533, Solanum physalifolium

Area List: Golden.  

Solanum physalifolium Rusby “Hoe Nightshade”

Found on disturbed ground in several places around Golden s.l., including the author's garden after soil was brought in from a major landscape products vendor. Jefferson County collections are in the more populated northern portion of the county. Colorado state collections are mostly along the Front Range and adjacent plains, with additional collections scattered around the state, particularly in agricultural areas.

Described by Rusby (1896) from plants collected in Bolivia by Miguel Bang. This is a new world plant, native to Peru to Argentina.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Solanum rostratum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1534, Solanum rostratum

Area List: Golden.  

Solanum rostratum Dunal “Buffalo Bur Nightshade”

Adventive in gardens and collected on North and South Table Mountains.

Described by Dunal (1813) from plants grown in the gardens at Montpellier, southern France, with no indication as to the source location of the plants. Described by Ackerfield (2015) as introduced to Colorado, but indicated as native to Colorado and central and southern U. S. A. to Mexico by POWO (Kew, 2022).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Verbascum blattaria;

Area List: Golden.  

Verbascum blattaria L. “Moth Mullein”

One collection in Golden s.l. made in the Survey Field where it grows with V. thapsus. The other collections in Jefferson County, of which there are two, were made in the intensely-collected Rocky Flats. Most Colorado collections were made in the urban areas from Denver to the north, with one collection near Cañon City and another on the plains near Burlington.

Described by Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 178) as living in the clayey areas of southern Europe. “Blattaria” is a pre-Linnaean name, apparently dating back to Pliny (Bauhini Pinax, 1671).

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Date and time this article was prepared: 9/21/2022 12:45:47 PM